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Second Edition 1915 

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Printer to the University 


Since the previous edition of this book appeared the 
criticism of Havelok has been greatly advanced by the work 
of Heyman and Deutschbein on the story, by Holthausen's 
second edition, and Professor Skeat's discovery of the 
Cambridge Fragments. In the few weeks available for 
the task of revision I have used this new material freely, 
and have made considerable alterations the more willingly 
because Professor Skeat himself was always most ready to 
utilize the latest results. 

The Introduction has therefore been remodelled. The 
Text and foot-notes are from stereotyped plates, and such 
slight changes as have been made have the single aim of 
restoring defensible readings in the manuscript. The Notes 
are for the most part new; and the Glossary, which was 
admirably full and accurate in its references, has been 
revised throughout. 

This work, necessarily hasty, would not have been 
possible without generous help. The Misses Skeat have 
kindly placed at my disposal the materials in their posses- 
sion. Professor Carleton Brown collated the Cambridge 
Fragments, which now follow the text, with very valuable 
results. Dr. Craigie contributes the important emendation 
of 1. 64. Professor Napier has allowed me to consult his 
bibliographical collections, and to quote his explanation of 
the forms mentioned in the note to 1. 2143. Finally, in 
all points the revision has greatly benefited by Dr. Henry 
Bradley's criticism and advice. 

K. S. 


The frontispiece represents the seal of Great Grimsby, 
described in the Introduction, § 12. 

The facsimile represents fol. 207 V. (col. 1, top) of the 
Laud MS. Compare 11. 632-53 at p. 24. 

Preface to the Second Edition iii 

Introduction.— -§ 1. Discovery of the Poem. §2. Select 
Bibliography. § 3. The Laud MS. § 4- The Cam- 
bridge Fragments. § 5. Geflfrei Gaimar. § 6. Le Lai 
d'Havelok. § 7. Robert Manning of Brunne. § 8. The 
Lambeth Interpolation. § 9. Relations of the chief 
versions of the Story. § 10. Minor versions. § 11. 
Local traditions. § 12. The Grimsby Seal. § 13. 
Localization of the Story. §§ 14, 15. Date of Com- 
position. § 16. Historical Basis of the Story. § 17. 
Legendary Elements. § 18. The Metre. § 19. The 
Rimes. § 20. Phonology. § 21. The Phonology of 
some Norse words. § 22. Inflexions — Nouns, Pronouns, 
Verbs, &c. § 23. The Spelling v-xl 

The Lay of Havelok x 

The Cambridge Fragments 103 

Notes 105 

Gloss arial Index . > m 

Index of Names . • , • . , . .169 


§ 1. The English version of the Lay of Havelok is one 
of the few poems that have happily been recovered, after 
having long been given up as lost. Tyrwhitt, in his Essay 
on the Language and Versification of Chaucer, has a foot- 
note (no. 51) deploring the loss of the Rime concerning 
Gryme the Fisher, the founder of Grymesby, Hanelok [read 
Havelok] the Dane, and his wife Goldborough ; and Ritson, 
in his Dissertation on Romance and Minstrelsy (vol. i, 
p. lxxxviii of his Metrical Romancees), makes remarks to 
the same effect. It was at length, however, discovered by 
accident in a manuscript belonging to the Bodleian Library, 
which had been described in the old Catalogue merely as 
Vitae Sanctorum, a large portion, of it being occupied by 
metrical legends of the Saints. 

§ 2. Select Bibliography. 


1828. The Ancient English Romance of Havelok the 
Dane, &°c, edited for the Roxburghe Club by (Sir) 
Frederick Madden. (The apparatus, which includes a full 
Introduction, the French from Gaimar, and the ' Lai 
d'Havelok ', is still precious.) 

1868. The Lay of Havelok the .Dane, edited for the Early 
English Text Society (Extra Series IV) by the Rev. W. W. 


Skeat, with the assistance of the previous editor. Reprinted 
with slight corrections and additions in 1889. (The best 

1901. Havelok, edited by F. Holthausen, London, 1901 
(Normalized in spelling, dialect, and metre.) 

1902. The Lay of Havelok the Dane, re-edited by the 
Rev. Professor W. W. Skeat, Oxford : at the Clarendon Press. 
(With normalized spelling, the basis of the present edition. 
The most important notice is that by M. Forster, Anglia, 
Beiblatt, vol. xiv. ro ff.) 

1910. Havelok, edited by F. Holthausen, second (German) 
edition, Heidelberg and New York. (Very much improved, 
and invaluable for its bibliographical references.) 


11. 1-183 in J. Zupitza's Alt- und mittelenglisches Lese- 
buch, Wien (and Leipzig) ; and in G. E. Maclean's Old and 
Middle English Reader, New York ; 11. 1-748 in F. Kluge^ 
Mittelenglisches Lesebuch, Halle ; 11. 339-748 in Morris and 
Skeat's Specimens of Early English, Part I, Oxford ; and 
in O. F. Emerson's Middle English Reader, New York ; 
11. 2052-2265 in R. P. Wiilker's Altenglisches Lesebuch, 
Part I, Halle. Most of -these are annotated. 


By Hupe, Anglia, vol. xiii. 194-5 (unreliable); by Holt- 
hausen, second edition, p. xvi; and, on some points, b) 
Sisam, Herrig's Archiv, vol. cxxviii. 197-9. 

1 These collations rarely affect the sense, and are in great par 
concerned with such purely palaeographical matters as the occurrenc 
of J> where th is printed. A few of textual importance are mentions 
in the Notes. 


Since the previous edition of this book appeared the 
criticism of Havelok has been greatly advanced by the work 
of Heyman and Deutschbein on the story, by Holthausen's 
second edition, and Professor Skeat's discovery of the 
Cambridge Fragments. In the few weeks available for 
the task of revision I have used this new material freely, 
and have made considerable alterations the more willingly 
because Professor Skeat himself was always most ready to 
utilize the latest results. 

The Introduction has therefore been remodelled. The 
Text and foot-notes are from stereotyped plates, and such 
slight changes as have been made have the single aim of 
restoring defensible readings in the manuscript. The Notes 
are for the most part new ; and the Glossary, which was 
admirably full and accurate in its references, has been 
revised throughout. 

This work, necessarily hasty, would not have been 
possible without generous help. The Misses Skeat have 
kindly placed at my disposal the materials in their posses- 
sion. Professor Carleton Brown collated the Cambridge 
Fragments, which now follow the text, with very valuable 
results. -Dr. Craigie contributes the important emendation 
of 1. 64. Professor Napier has allowed me to consult his 
bibliographical collections, and to quote his explanation of 
th * forms mentioned in the note to 1. 2143. Finally, in 
ai 1 points the revision has greatly benefited by Dr. Henry 
Bi idley's criticism and advice. 

K. S. 


E. K. Putnam : The Lambeth Version of Havelok, 
Publications of the Modern Language Association of North 
America, Baltimore, 1900, pp. 1-19. 

H. Heyman : Studies on the Havelok Tale, Upsala, 

M. Deutschbein : Studien zur Sagengeschichte Englands, 
Part I, 'Die Wikingersagen ', Cothen, 1906. 

§ 3. The Laud Manuscript. The only complete text 
of the poem is extant in MS. Laud Misc. 108, in the 
Bodleian Library. It begins on fol. 204, and. is written in 
double columns each of which contains forty-five lines. 
Hence a hundred and eighty lines are missing after 1. 1444, 
where a leaf is lost of which no count is taken in the folio 
numbering. It ends on the back of fol. 219, and is imme- 
diately followed, in the same handwriting, by the ' Geste 
of King Horn \ These two poems form the second part of 
the MS. Part I is chiefly occupied by Lives of the Saints, 
printed by Horstmann, E. E. T. S., 1887. The hands are of 
about the same date as the Havelok portion, that is to say, 
early fourteenth century. Part III is of the fifteenth 
century, and contains the Lives of Saint Cecilia and Saint 
Blaise (also printed by Horstmann) ; Saint Alexius (printed 
by Dr. Furnivall in E. E. T. S., no. 69) ; and a poem called 
'Somer Soneday' printed in Reliquiae Antiquae, vol. ii, 
PP- 7~9 3 followed by a few other scraps. From the 
circumstances mentioned in the note to 1. 2933, Zupitza 
conjectured that an older MS., from which the existing 
copy was made, contained only twenty lines to the page; 
and Mr. Hall has noted that twenty lines in the copy of 
King Horn are found to be out of place, which furnishes 
strong evidence as to the correctness of the suggestion. If 
so, the MS. must have been made with small pages for the 
purpose of portability; and would have been well suited for 


use by a wandering minstrel or reciter of poems. For 
further details see Hall's King Horn, pp. viii-x. 

The arrangement of the page and the script may be 
studied in Skeat's Twelve Facsimiles of Old English MSS., 
Plate VII, where fol. 207 v. is reproduced. A portion of 
the same plate, containing 11. 632-53, is reproduced in the 
present volume. On the whole the writing is clear, but it 
is sometimes difficult to distinguish c and /, n and u. The 
/ has a long stroke over it when written next to m or n, but 
this stroke is frequently misplaced in the word knith = 
kniht. The letters p, y are usually distinguished by the 
dot over y, but p occasionally has this dot. The few cases 
of the Anglo-Saxon p for w are not easily distinguished by 
letter form, and the only certain examples are ze/itdrow, 
1. 502; wit, 1. 997; we, 1. 1058; berze/en, 1. 1426; we, 
miswritten for wo =■ who, 1. 19 14. This evidence is 
interesting as showing that this letter was then fast going 
out of use. The absence of 3 from the Havelok text is the 
more remarkable since it occurs in King Horn. 

The poem is marked out into paragraphs by the use of 
large letters ; and in this edition a slight space is introduced 
at the end of each paragraph to show this more clearly. 
The expansion of marks of contraction is denoted in the 
usual way by the use of italics ; thus in 1. 9 ' ma^ ' is printed 
instead of the form 'ma/, as in the MS., and the curl 
denoting er is represented by printing c eu^e ? in 1. 17. 
Additions and emendations are enclosed in square brackets, 
and the punctuation and capitalization are modern. 

§ 4. The Cambridge Fragments. By a happy chance 
the discovery of some fragments of another manuscript fell 
to Professor Skeat. In the Modern Language Review for 
October, 191 1, pp. 455-7, he published the scraps now 
included at the end of the text with the following explana- 


tion : ' Among the treasures of the Cambridge University 
Library have been preserved four small and insignificant- 
looking scraps of paper containing writing which appears 
to belong to the end of the fourteenth century. They are 
contained in an envelope marked 4407 (19). One of the 
scraps was perceived to contain a small portion of the 
"Proverbs of Hending". The meaning of the rest was 
less obvious, and I was asked to endeavour to discover it. 
I soon saw that some of the lines certainly belonged to 
Havelok the Dane. ... I have recommended that the 
eight fragments (recto and verso of four scraps) should be 
marked a, b, c, d, e, /, g, h. Fragment d contains Havelok 
11. 174-83 (partly illegible); e contains 11. 341-64; and/ 
contains 11. 537-44, ten lines not in the other copy, and 
11. 545-6, another new line, and 11. 547-9.' 

The MS., as Professor Skeat pointed out, is late and 
corrupt ; and it is chiefly important for the ten lines added 
after 1. 544. Are these to be accepted as part of the text 
of Havelok! Professor Skeat seems to have inclined to 
accept them, for he remarks (p. 457) 'the aspiration 
expressed in 1. 544 of the Oxford MS. seems to have been 
adopted to hide a loss of ten lines that should have been 
preserved'. But there is a good deal to be said against 
their genuineness. They are extremely feeble and dis- 
jointed, and trail on like the work of a man who cannot 
make up his mind where to stop ; they add nothing to the 
story, and they form just such a digression as the Havelok 
poet sedulously avoids : 

pat is \e storie for to lenge, 
It wolde anuye j>is fayre genge. 

Again, however the body of the line may be enfeebled in 
a late MS., we should expect the rimes to be permanent. 
Yet these few lines contain two riming tags, on fele nianere, 


in mani a Ms, which are quite unknown to Havelok, and 
which, with words like comaundeme\n\t y indicate a much 
increased French influence. Finally, the lines fail to link 
up with what follows them. For these reasons they are 
rather to be regarded as a late addition. 

In the same fragment the MS. breaks off tantalizingly 
just when it seemed to solve the most corrupt passage in 
Havelok ; see the note to 11. 546 ff. On the whole its 
critical value is slight. 

Other Early Versions of the Story. 

§ 5. Geffrei Gaimar. The story appears in two Anglo- 
French versions, both derived from an earlier source that is 
now lost ; for each contains circumstances that are not 
mentioned in the other, though there is often a close agree- 
ment. The older of these is probably that contained in 
11. 37-818 (ed. T. Wright) of the poem entitled UEstorie des 
Engles, written by Geffrei Gaimar, apparently between the 
years 1147 and 1151. 1 In one place (1. 41) he cites Gildas 
as his authority, but no safe conclusion can be drawn from 
this vague reference. In another place (1. 758) he mentions 
a feast given by Havelok — ' si cum nus dit la verai estoire ' — 
i. e. as the true history tells us. There are three MS. copies 
of Gaimar's version of the story, of which perhaps the best 
is the Royal MS. (Bibl. Reg. 13. A. xxi) in the British 
Museum ; the two others belong respectively to the Dean 
and Chapter of Durham (Cathedral MS. C. iv. 27) and to 
the Dean and Chapter of Lincoln (Cathedral MS. H. lS). 
The Royal MS. was printed in full by Mr. T. Wright for 
the Caxton Society in 1850. Portions of it have also been 

1 Lines 1-36 really belong to another book by Gaimar, viz. his 
translation of The Brut, from Geoffrey of Monmouth. 


printed by M. Michel, in his Chroniques Anglo - Nor mande s ^ 
8vo, Rouen, 1835; by Sir F. Madden, in his edition of 
Havelok (as above); and by Mr. Petrie in 1848, for which 
see Monumenta Historica Briiannica, vol. i, p. 764. The 
latest complete edition of Gaimar is that by Sir T. Duffus 
Hardy and C. T. Martin in Rerum Britannicarum Medii 
Aevi Scriptores} 

§ 6. lie Lai d'Havelok. This Anglo-French version 
likewise belongs to the twelfth century, and gives a similar 
story, with some variations. There are two MS. copies, of 
which one belongs to the collection made by Sir T. Phillipps, 
and the other is known as the Arundel MS. (or the Norfolk 
MS.), and is preserved in the Heralds' College, where it is 
marked E. D. N. no. 14. It was printed in Sir F. Madden's 
edition of Havelok, pp. 105-146; by M. Michel, Paris, 1833; 
in the Appendix to T. Wright's edition of Gaimar ; and by 
Hardy and Martin (as above) i. 290 ff. 2 A brief sketch of 
its contents is here subjoined. 

The Britons made a lay concerning King Havelok, who is 
surnamed Cuaran. His father was Gunter, King of the Danes. 
Arthur crossed the sea, and invaded Denmark. Gunter perished 
by the treason of Hodulf, who gained the kingdom, and held it 
of Arthur. Gunter had a fine castle, where his wife and son 
were guarded, being committed to the protection of Grim. 
The child was but seven years old ; but ever as he slept, an 
odorous flame issued from his mouth. Hodulf sought to kill 
him, but Grim prepared a ship, wherein he placed the queen and 
the child, and furnished it with provisions, and set sail from 
Denmark. On their voyage they encountered pirates ('out- 
laghes ? ), who killed them all after a hard fight, excepting Grim, 
who was an acquaintance of theirs, and G rim's wife and 

1 The Introduction gives a full description of the MSS., of which the 
Durham copy is the earliest in script and language. The second volume 
contains a translation of Gaimar and Le Lai d'Havelok. 

2 The less accessible Phillipps MS. is the earlier. The Arundel MS., 
f. 148 by has : ' Athelwold auoit vne fille Goldeburgh, et il regna vi anz. 
Haueloc esposa meisme cele Goldeburgh, et regna iij. anz.' 


children. Havelok also was saved. They at last arrived at 
the haven, afterwards named i Grimesbi ' from Grim. Grim 
there resumed his old trade, a fisherman's, and a town grew up 
round his hut, which was called Grimsby. The child grew 
up, and waxed strong. One day Grim said to him, ' Son, you 
will never thrive as a fisherman ; take your brothers with you, 
and seek service amongst the King's servants \ He was soon 
well apparelled, and repaired with his two foster-brothers to 
Nicole [Lincoln]. Now at that time there was a king named 
Alsi, who ruled over all Nicole and Lindesie ; x but the country 
southward was governed by another king, named Ekenbright, 
who had married Alsi's sister Orewen. These two had one 
only daughter, named Argentine. Ekenbright, falling ill, com- 
mitted Argentille to the care of Alsi, till she should be of age 
to be married to the strongest man that could be found. At 
Ekenbright's death, Alsi reigned over both countries, holding 
his court at Nicole. Havelok, on his arrival there, was employed 
to carry water and cut wood, and to perform all menial offices 
requiring great strength. He was named Cuaran, which means 
— in the British language — a scullion. Argentille soon arrived 
at marriageable age, and Alsi determined to marry her to 
Cuaran, which would sufficiently fulfil her father's wish — Cuaran 
being confessedly the strongest man in those parts. To this 
marriage he compelled her to consent, hoping thereby to dis- 
grace her for ever. Havelok was unwilling that his wife should 
perceive the marvellous flame, but soon forgot this, and ere 
long fell asleep. Then had Argentille a strange vision — that 
a savage bear and some foxes attacked Cuaran, but dogs and 
boars defended him. A boar having killed the bear, the foxes 
cried for quarter from Cuaran, who commanded them to be 
bound. Then he would have put to sea, but the sea rose so 
high that he was terrified. Next she beheld two lions, at seeing 
which she was frightened, and she and Cuaran climbed a tree 
to avoid them ; but the lions submitted themselves to him, and 
called him their lord. Then a great cry was raised, whereat 
she awoke, and beheld the miraculous flame. ' Sir,' she ex- 
claimed, ' you burn ! ' But he reassured her, and attempted to 
give an ordinary explanation of her dream. The next day, 
however, she again told her dream to a chamberlain, her friend, 
who said that he well knew a holy hermit who could explain it. 
The hermit explained to Argentille that Cuaran must be of royal 
lineage. ' He will be king,' he said, ' and you a queen. Ask 
him concerning his parentage. Remember also to repair to 
his native place.' On being questioned, Cuaran replied that 

1 The northern part of Lincolnshire is called Lindsey. 


he was born at Grimsby ; that Grim was his father, and 
Saburc his mother. ' Then let us go to Grimsby/ she replied. 
Accompanied by his two foster-brothers, they came to Grimsby ; 
but Grim and Saburc were both dead. They found there, 
however, a daughter of Grim's, named Kelloc, who had married 
a tradesman of that town. Up to this time Havelok had not 
known his true parentage, but Kelloc thought it was now time 
to tell him, and said : ' Your father was Gunter, the King of the 
Danes, whom Hodulf slew. Hodulf obtained the kingdom as 
a grant from Arthur. Grim fled with you, and saved your life ; 
but your mother perished at sea. Your name is Havelok. 
My husband will convey you to Denmark, where you must 
inquire for a lord named " Sigar l'estal " ; and take with you 
my two brothers. 5 So Kelloc's husband conveyed them to 
Denmark, and advised Havelok to go to Sigar and show 
himself and his wife, as then he would be asked who his wife is. 
They went to the city of the seneschal, the before-named Sigar, 
where they craved a night's lodging, and were courteously 
entertained. But as they retired to a lodging for the night, 
six men attacked them, who had been smitten with the beauty 
of Argentine. Havelok defended himself with an axe which 
he found, and slew five, whereupon the sixth fled. Havelok 
and his party fled away for refuge to a monastery, which was 
soon attacked by the townsmen who had heard of the combat. 
Havelok mounted the tower, and defended himself bravely, 
casting down a huge stone on his enemies} The news soon 
reached the ears of Sigar, who hastened to see what the uproar 
was about. Beholding Havelok fixedly, he called to mind the 
form and appearance of Gunter, and asked Havelok of his 
parentage. Havelok replied that Grim had told him he was by 
birth a Dane, and that his mother perished at sea ; and ended 
by briefly relating his subsequent adventures. Then Sigar 
asked him his name. ' My name is Havelok,' he said, 'and 
my other name is Cuaran.' Then the seneschal took him 
home, and determined to watch for the miraculous flame, 
which he soon perceived, and was assured that Havelok was 
the true heir. Therefore he gathered a great host of his 
friends, and sent for the horn which none but the true heir 
could sound, promising a ring to any one who could blow it. 
When all had failed, it was given to Havelok, who blew it loud 
and long, and was joyfully recognized and acknowledged to be 
the true King. Then with a great army he attacked Hodulf 

1 Hence the obvious origin of the legend of ' Havelok's stone % and 
a local tradition about Grim's casting down stones from the tower of 
Grimsby church. See § it. 


the usurper, whom he slew with his own hand. Thus was 
Havelok made King of Denmark. 

But after he had reigned four years, his wife incited him to 
return to England. With a great number of ships he sailed 
there, and arrived at Carleflure ; * and sent messengers to 
Alsi, demanding the inheritance of Argentine. Alsi was indeed 
astonished at such a demand as coming from a scullion, and 
offered him battle. The hosts met at Theford, 2 and the battle 
endured tiJl nightfall without a decisive result. But Argentine 
craftily advised her lord to support his dead men by stakes, 
to increase the apparent number of his army; 3 and the next 
day Alsi, deceived by this device, treated for peace, and yielded 
up to his former ward all the land, from Holland 4 to Gloucester. 
Alsi had been so sorely wounded that he lived but fifteen days 
longer. Thus was Havelok king over Lincoln and Lindsey, 
and reigned over them for twenty years. Such is the lay of 

§ 7. Robert Manning of Brunne. It is convenient to 
consider next the translation of Peter Langtoft's Chronicle 
made by Robert Manning, of Brunne or Bourne in Lincoln- 
shire, and completed in the year 1338. Manning is the 
well-known author of the poem entitled Handlyng Synne, 
written in 1303 ; and he was well acquainted with our 
poem, as he quotes it or imitates it at least twice ; see 
notes to 11. 679, 819. The later portion of Manning's 
translation was printed at Oxford by T. Hearne in 1725, 
in 2 vols. ; and the first part (British history) has since 
been edited, for the Master of the Rolls, by Dr. Furnivall. 
Now Langtoft mentions casually Gountere le pere Hauelok, 
de Danays Ray clamez^ i.e. 'Gunter, father of Havelok, 

1 Possibly Saltfleet, suggests Mr. Haigh. Such, at least, is the 
position required by the circumstances. 

2 In the Durham MS. it is Tiedfort, i. e. Tetford, not far from Horn- 
castle, in Lincolnshire. 

3 This is an important parallel to a story told about Amleth (Hamlet) 
in the History by Saxo Grammaticus, bk. iv. ' He resorts to a device 
to increase the apparent number of his men. He puts stakes under some 
of the dead bodies of his comrades, to prop them up,' &c. — Gollancz, ' 
Hamlet hi Iceland, p. xxviii. 

4 A name given to the south-east part of Lincolnshire. 


called King of the Danes ', which Gunter he identifies with 
the Danish invader Godrum, defeated by Alfred in 878. 
See the edition by T. Wright (Rolls Series, i. 318). When 
Manning comes to this passage, he translates the French 
line by Hauelok fader he was, Gunter was his name ; 
where Hearne prints the former name as ' Hanelok '. Then 
follows the usual account, how Gunter (Godrum) made 
peace with Alfred, and submitted to be baptized, a.d. 878. 
After which we have the following interpolated passage, 
written by Manning on his own account. See ed. Hearne, 
i. 25 :— 

Bot I haf grete ferly j>at I fynd no man, 

pat has written in story how Hauelok jiis lond Wan, 

Noij>er Gildas, no Bede, no Henry of Huntynton, 

No William of Malmesbiri, ne Pers of Bridlynton, 

Writes not in J?er bokes of no kyng Athelwold, 

Ne Goldeburgh his douhtere, ne Hauelok not of told, 

Whilk tyme }>e were kynges, long or now late, 

pei mak no menyng whan, no in what date. 

Bot )>at f>ise lowed men vpon Inglish tellis, 

Right story can me not ken, j>e certeynte what spellis. 

Men sais in Lyncoln castelle ligges ^it a stone, 

pat Hauelok kast wele forbi euerilkone. 

& }it J?e chapelle standes J>er he weddid his wife, 

Goldeburgh )>e kynges douhter,^a/ saw is }it rife. 

& of Gryme a fisshere men redes $it in ryme, 

pat he bigged Grymesby, Gryme J>at ilk tyme. 

Of alle stories of honoure, \zX I haf j>orgh souht, 

I fynd }>at no compiloure of him tellis ouht. 

Sen I fynd non redy |>at tellis of Hauelok kynde, 

Turne we to pat story pat we writenfynde. 

There cannot exist the smallest doubt that by the ' Ryme ' 
here mentioned, ' that lowed men vpon Inglish tellis \ the 
identical English romance, now before the reader, is referred 
to. We see also that, in 1338, the traditions respecting 
Havelok at Lincoln were so strongly preserved, as to point 
out various localities to which the story had affixed a name ; 
and similar traditions connected with the legend, as we shall 


find hereafter, existed also at Grimsby. The doubts expressed 
by the Chronicler, as to their authenticity, or the authority 
of the ' Ryme ', are curious, but only of value so far as they 
prove that he was ignorant of the existence of a French 
romance on the subject, or of its reception in Gaimar's 
historical poem. 

§ 8. The Lambeth Interpolation. On comparing the 
Lambeth MS. of Manning's translation, Sir F. Madden 
found that this passage had been omitted and replaced by 
a summary of the Havelok story, which is here printed after 
Madden's text. Obviously the interpolator had access to 
sources of which Manning knew nothing. 

Forth wente Counter & his folk al in to Denemark : 

Sone fel ther hym vpon a werre styth & stark, 

Thurgh a Breton kyng, th* out of Ingeland cam, 

& asked (the) tribut of Denmark, th* Arthur whylom nam. 

They wythseide hit schortly, and non wolde they ^elde, 5 

But rather they wolde dereyne hit wyth bataill y the felde. 

Both partis on a day to felde come they stronge : 

Desconfit were the Danes, Gounter his deth gan fonge. 

When he was ded they schepe brynge al his blod to schame ; 

But Gatferes doughter the kyng, Eleyne was hure name, 10 

Was kyng Gounteres wyf, and had a child hem bytwene, 

Wyth wham scheo scapede vnethe, al to the se with tene. 

The child hym highte Hauelok, th* was his moder dere ; 

Scheo mette with Grym atte hauene, a wel god marinere. 1 4 

He hure knew & highte hure wel to helpe hure with his might, 

To brynge hure saf out of the lond wythinne th* ilke night. 

When they come in myd se, a gret meschef gan falle : 

They metten wyth a gret schip, lade wyth outlawes all. 

Anon they fullen hem apon, & dide hem mikel peyne, 19 

So th* wyth strengthe of their assaut ded was quene Eleyne. 

But ^yt ascapede from hem Grym, wyth Hauelok & other fyue, 

& atte the hauene of Grymesby, ther they gon aryue. 

Ther was brought forth child Hauelok, wyth Grym & his fere, 

Right als hit hadde be ther owen, for other wyste men nere, 

Til he was mykel & mighti, & man of mykel cost, 25 

Th* for his grete sustinaunce nedly serue he most. 

He tok leue of Grym & Seburc, as of his sire & dame, 

And askede ther blessinge curteysly, ther was he nought to blame, 

1818 b 


Thenne drow he forth northward, to kynges court Edelsie, 29 

Th* held fro H umber to Rotland the kyngdam of Lyndesye. 

Thys Edelsy of Breton kynde had Orewayn his sister bright 

Maried to a noble kyng of Northfolk, Egelbright. 

Holly for his kyngdam he held in his hand 

Al the lond fro Colchestre right in til Holand. 

Thys Egelbright th* was a Dane, & Orewayn the quene, 35 

Hadden gete on Argill, a doughter, hem bytwene. 

Sone then deyde Egelbright, and his wyf Orewayn, 

& therfore was kyng Edelsye bothe joyful & fayn. 

Anon their doughter & here Eyr, his nece dame Argill, 

& al the kyngdam he tok in hande, al at his owene will. 40 

Ther serued Hauelok as quistron, & was y-cald .Coraunt, 

He was ful mykel & hardy, & strong as a Geaurit. 

He was bold curteys & fre, & fair & god of manere, 

So th* alle folk hym louede th* anewest hym were. 

But for couetise of desheraison of damysele Argill, 4 5 

& for a chere th* the kyng sey scheo made Coraunt till, 

He dide hem arraye ful symplely, & wedde togydere bothe ; — 

For he ne rewarded desparagyng were manion ful wrothe. 

A while they dwelt after in court, in ful pore degre ; 49 

The schame & sorewe th* Argill hadde, hit was a deol to se. 

Then seyde scheo til hure maister, ( of whenne sire be $e ? 

Haue :$e no kyn ne frendes at horn, in ^oure contre ? 

Leuer were me lyue in pore lyf, wythoute schame & tene, 

Than in schame & sorewe lede the astat of quene. ? 

Thenne wente they forth to Grymesby, al by his wyues red, 55 

& founde th* Grym & his wyf weren bothe ded. 

But he fond ther on Aunger, Grymes cosyn hend, 

To wham th* Grym & his wyf had teld word & ende, 

How th* hit stod wyth Hauelok, in all manere degre, 

& they hit hym telde, & conseilled to drawe til his contre, 60 

Tasaye what grace he mighte fynde among his frendes there, 

& they wolde ordeyne for their schipynge, and al th* hem nede 

When Aunger hadde y-schiped hem, they seilled forth ful swythe, 
Ful-but in-til Denemark, wyth weder fair & lithe. 
Ther fond he on sire Sykar, a man of gret pouste, 65 

Th* hey styward somtyme was of al his fader fe. 
Ful fayn was he of his comyng, & god help hym bihight, 
To recouere his heritage of Edulf kyng & knyght. 
Sone asembled they gret folk of his sibmen & frendes ; 
Kyng Edulf gadered his power, & ageyn them wendes. 7° 

Desconfyt was ther kyng Edulf & al his grete bataill, 
& so conquered Hauelok his heritage saunz faille. 


Sone after he schep hym gret power in toward Ingelond, 

His wyues heritage to wynne ne wolde he nought wonde. 

Th* herde the kyng of Lyndeseye, he was come on th* cost, 75 

& schop to fighte wyth hym sone, & gadered hym gret host. 

But atte day of bataill Edelsy was desconfit, 

& after, by tretys, gaf Argentill hure heritage al quit. 

& for scheo was next of his blod, Hauelokes wyf so feyr, 

He gaf hure Lyndesey after his day, & made hure his Eyr. 80 

& atte last so byfel, th* vnder Hauelokes schelde 

Al Northfolk & Lyndeseye holy of hym they helde. 

MS. Lamb. 131, leaf 76. 

§ 9. Relations of the chief versions of the Story. 

The following table of the names assigned to the chief 
characters, which is adapted from Heyman, p. 16, shows at 
a glance that Gaimar, Le Lai oV Havelok, and the Lambeth 
Lnterpolation agree together against the English Havelok. 
Grim and Havelok are the only names common to all 

Gaimar Lai Lambeth Interpolation Havelok 

Adelbrict Ekenbright Egelbright Athelwold 

Edelsi Alsi Edelsi Godrich 

Gunter Gunter Gunter Birkabeyn 

Edulf, Odulf Hodulf Edulf Godard 

Sigar Sigar Sykar Ubbe 

Sebrug Saburc Seburc Leue 

Argentine Argentille Argill, Argentine Goldeboru l 

The relation of the French versions to each other was 
examined by M. Kupferschmidt in Bohmer's Romanische 
Studien, iv, pp. 411 ff. But Putnam first pointed out that 
Gaimar, the Lai, and the Lambeth Lnterpolation are all 
derived from a lost French version in rimed couplets. 
Heyman — who gives an excellent analysis — and Deutschbein 
agree in essentials with Putnam's results. It is scarcely 
possible to determine the relation of the French versions 
to the English poem; nor, on the evidence of a single 

1 Observe that the story known to Robert Manning had the names 
Athelwold and Goldeboru (see § 7). 

b 2 


complete manuscript, can the earlier history of the English 
poem be demonstrated. 

§ 10. Minor Versions. Some dozen minor versions are 
discussed by Madden. One of these, from Le Petit Bruit 
by Rauf de Boun, a Lincolnshire man, bases on the English 
story, as the names show. Another from the prose Brut 
cPEngleterre is the subject of an interesting article by Brie 
in Englische Studien, vol. xxxv. 359 if. Brie shows that this 
version, though it agrees in the main with the French story, 
borrows certain traits from the English, including the name 
Birkebeyn for Havelok's father. The rest are of little im- 
portance for our present purposes, as practically all represent 
the French, and not the English version of the story, in 
a more or less debased form. 

§ 11. Local traditions. We find that Camden briefly 

alludes to the story in a contemptuous manner (p. 353 ; 

ed. 8vo, Lond. 1587); but Gervase Holies is far from being 

disposed to regard it as fabulous. ' In his MSS. collections 

for Lincolnshire' (says Sir F. Madden) ' preserved in MS. 

Harl. 6829, he thus speaks of the story we are examining 1 : — 

And it will not be amisse, to say something concerning y e 
Common tradition of her first founder Grime, as y e inhabitants 
(with a Catholique faith) name him. The tradition is thus. 
Grime (say they) a poore Fisherman (as he was launching into 
y e Riuer for fish in his little boate vpon H umber) espyed not 
far from him another little boate, empty (as he might conceaue) 
which by y e fauour of y e wynde & tyde still approached nearer 
& nearer vnto him. He betakes him to his Oares, & meetes itt, 
wherein he founde onely a Childe wrapt in Swathing Clothes, 
purposely exposed (as it should seeme) to y e pittylesse [rage] 
of y e wilde & Wide Ocean. He, moued with pitty, takes itt 
home, & like a good foster-father carefully nourisht itt, & 
endeauoured to nourishe it in his owne occupation : ^ but y e 
childe contrarily was wholy deuoted to exercises of Actiuity, & 
when he began to write man, to Martiall sports, & at length by 

1 'His account has been printed in the Topographer, V. i. p. 241, 
sq. 8vo, 1789. We follow ' (says Sir F. Madden) < the MS. itself, p. 1.' 


his Signall Valour obteyned such renowne, y* he marryed y e King 
of England's daughter, & last of all founde who was his true 
Father, & that he was Sonne to y e King of Denmarke ; & for 
y e Comicke close of all, that Haueloke (for such was his name) 
exceedingly aduanced & enriched his Foster-father Grime, who 
thus enriched, builded a fayre Towne neare the place where 
Hauelocke was founde, & named it Grimesby. Thus say 
some : others differ a little in y e Circumstances, as namely, that 
Grime was not a Fisherman, but a Merchant, & that Hauelocke 
should be preferred to y e King's Kitchin, & there Hue a longe 
tyme as a Scullion : but however y e Circumstances differ, they 
all agree in y e consequence, as concerning y e Towne's founda- 
tion, to which (sayth y e Story) Hauelocke y e Danish prince 
afterward graunted many immunityes. This is y e famous 
Tradition concerning Grimsby w ch learned Mr. Cambden gives 
so little creditt to, that he thinkes it onely Mis dignissima, qtd 
anilibus fabulis noctem so lent ftrotrudere? 

And a little farther on he makes the remark, 'that 
Hauelocke did sometymes reside in Grimsby, maybe gathered 
from a great blew Boundry-Stone, lying at y e East ende of 
Briggowgate, which retaines y e name of Hauelocft s- Stone 
to this day. Agayne y e great Priuiledges & Immunityes, that 
this Towne hath in Denmarke aboue any other in England 
(as freedome from Toll, & y e rest), may fairely induce a 
Beleife, that some preceding favour or good turne called 
on this remuneration. But lastly (which proofe I take to be 
insiar omnium) the Common Seale of y e Towne, & that 
a most auncient one,' &c. 

§ 12. The Grimsby seal. The copy of this seal, as 
it appears in the present edition, is due to the courtesy of 
J. Hopkin, Esq., of Grimsby, whose description of it (first 
printed, in a slightly different form, in Notes and Queries, 
2nd Series, vol. xi, p. 41 ; see also p. 216) is here repro- 
duced (with some abridgement) from Professor Skeat's 

The ancient Town Seal of Grimsby is engraven on a circular 
piece of brass, not very thick, inscribed 'Sigillvm Com^unitatis 


Grimebye \ Gryme (' Gryem ') is represented as a man of 
gigantic stature, with comparatively short hair, a shaven chin 
and a moustache, holding in his right hand a drawn sword, and 
bearing on his left arm a circular shield with an ornate boss and 
rim. Between his feet is a conic object, possibly intended for 
a helmet, as it resembles the chapelle-de-fer worn by William 
Rufus on his Great Seal. On the right hand of Gryme stands 
Haveloc ('Habloc'). 1 Above Gryme is represented a hand, 
being emblematical of the hand of Providence by which Haveloc 
was preserved, and near the hand is the star which marks the 
point where the inscription begins and ends. Above Haveloc is 
represented a crown, and in his right hand is a battle-axe. In his 
left hand is a ring which he is presenting to Goldburgh (' Golde- 
bvrgh '), who stands on the left side of Gryme, and whose right 
hand is held towards the Ring. Over her head is a Regal Diadem, 
and in her left hand is a Sceptre. Sir F. Madden states that it 
is certain that this seal is at least as old as the time of Edward I., 
and therefore contemporaneous with the MS., as the legend is 
written in a character which after the year 1300 fell into disuse. 

§ 13. Localization of the Story. Lincoln and Grimsby 

are the centres of Havelok's activities ; and the poet speaks 

familiarly of the former town, its bridge, 11. 875, 881, and 

its green, 11. 2828-9. The earliest French version is that 

of Gaimar, whose patroness, Constance FitzGilbert, was a 

Lincolnshire lady. Robert Manning, who first mentions 

the English story, and imitates lines from it, lived at Brunne 

(Bourne) in Lincolnshire. The local traditions mentioned 

by him and by Holies, with the Grimsby seal, point in the 

same direction. There, too, we should expect the strong 

Norse influence, and such grammatical forms as the rimes 

establish for the original draft of the poem. It is true that 

the extant MS. has probably passed through many copies, 

and no longer presents a pure dialect ; but there is every 

reason to believe that Havelok was originally written in 

1 From a clear wax impression of this seal, Dr. Bradley points out 
that the letter hitherto read as B is really a combination of U and E. 
The combination is an unnatural one, and probably due to an after- 
thought. Perhaps after completing U the engraver found the space too 
short for the remaining letters. 

DA TE xxni 

Lincolnshire. If, then, it be admitted that the name Havelok 
is in itself a sufficient evidence of Celtic influence (see 
below, § 1 6), it is probable that this influence came from 
Cumberland rather than from Wales. 

§ 14. Date. The date of the MS., which belongs to the 
early fourteenth century, gives a latter limit. The echoes 
of the poem in Robert Manning's Handlyng Synne x fix the 
date before 1303, in which year Handlyng Synne was 
written. In a letter to the Athenaeum^ Feb. 23, 1889, 
Hales attempts to establish the earlier limit from internal 
evidence. He argues that Roxburgh first became a border 
fortress in 1296, and therefore could not well be referred to 
as marking the northern frontier before that date. 2 Again, 
the Parliament at Lincoln (1. 1178) must be the Parliament 
of 1 30 1 (at which the Archbishop of York was present). 
And at 1. 2521 there may be an allusion to the foundation 
of a Friary of Black Monks about 1280. For these and 
slighter reasons he would date the present poem about 

The decisiveness of Hales's arguments, doubted at the 
time by Liebermann (Deutsche Zeitschrift fur Geschichts- 
wissenschaft, 1890, pp. 154 if.), has been lessened by later 
research. In Englische Studien, vol. xxxii. 319 f., Van der 
Gaaf points out that there was a Parliament at Lincoln as 
early as 1226. Deutschbein, in a very interesting discussion 
of the date, pp. 159 if., shows that Roxburgh came into 
English hands as early as n 74, in ransom for William of 
Scotland, and himself inclines to a date in the second half 
of the thirteenth century. The whole subject is one of 

1 See notes to 11. 679-80, 819-20. The whole question of imitation 
is difficult in Middle English romances which are full of conventional 
phrases. But Manning's special connexion with the Havelok story 
makes these lines fairly sure evidence of imitation. 

2 See 11. 139, 265. 


great difficulty, and a most valuable contribution is made 
by Professor Skeat in his discussion of final -e. 1 

§15. ' If we were to accept the date as being about 1300, 
and the dialect as that of Lincolnshire, it would follow that 
the grammar of the Lay and that of the Handlyng Synne 
must be practically identical. But we are confronted by the 
obvious fact that they are nothing of the kind, nor could 
ever have been so. Compare, for example, 11. 1-100 with 
the 11. 5575-674 of Handlyng Synne, as given in Specimens 
of English, ed. Morris and Skeat, pp. 50-3., In 11. 1-100 
of the Lay (omitting examples of final -en) there are at 
least 32 instances in which the scansion of the line is 
incomplete unless we suppose a final -e to be sounded (as 
e.g. in 1. 10, we must read purt-e) ; and there are at least 
66 lines with feminine rhymes, of which all but 10 involve 
a final -e. But in the 100 lines of Handlyng Synne, there 
are only 18 cases (not at the end of a line) where the 
scansion requires a final -e\ and hardly 40 lines with true 
feminine rhymes, 6 of which involve no final -e. In other 
words, the Lay has 88 examples in which the final -e con- 
stitutes a syllable where Manning has but 52. 2 If we 
compare another 100 lines, we shall obtain similar results ; 
and even if these calculations be somewhat inexact, the 
general conclusion is not much affected. The difference 
in grammatical usage is very clearly marked. It seems to 
follow that, if the two poems were written in the same 
dialect, the Lay must have been originally written at a 
considerably earlier date; and that it acquired additions 
and alterations in the process of transmission from one 

1 Cf. Schmidt, pp. 89-97. 

2 In 100 lines of The Owl and Nightingale (in Morris, Specimens of 
English) there are about 150 examples of final -e. But this is a Southern 
poem, and perhaps as early as 1250. 


reciter to another. Compare, for example, the following 
lines from Havelok and from Manning's Handlyng Synne, 
as regards the treatment of final -e : — 

All-e gret-en swi}>-e sor-e ; Hav. 236. 
But son-e ded-e hir-e fet-e ; 316. 
pin-e cherl-es, J)in-e hin-e ; 620. 
Grim-es son-es all-e )>re ; 1399. 

But to j>e por' boj>' mek' and kynde ; H. S. 5692. 
pat J?e por' man of hym had ; 5730. 
And )>oght' gret wunder and sej>en seyd ; 5740. 
Unto a cherch-e bo])' j>ey yede ; 5777. 

' We can only conclude that the extant copy shows the 
poem in quite a late stage, with just a few interpolations 
in it to bring it up to date. 1 The first draft of the poem 
must surely have been composed earlier than 1300; but 
how much earlier it is impossible to say. That the dialect 
was, in the first instance, that of Lincolnshire, is consistent 
with the fact that we can still detect the characteristic suffix 
-es of the pres. s. indicative as occurring in fifteen un- 
ambiguous rhymes (306, 396, 597, 1359, 1443, l6 93> 1781, 
1851, 1913, 2105, 2323, 2341, 2392, 2573, 2983); and the 
pi. suffix -e at the end of 11. 1325, 2099, and 2583.' 

§ 16. Historical Basis of the Story. In the French 
versions Havelok is called Cuaran (Cuheran, Coraunt) ; and 
Cuaran, which is a Celtic word meaning ' a sock, a brogue 
of untanned leather or skin ', is the surname of a famous 
Viking, Olaf Sictricson, who was on the defeated side at 
Brunanburh in 937, and died in 981 (see Dictionary of 
National Biography). In Englische Studien, vol. hi. 533 ff., 
Storm first proved that Havelok is a form of the Celtic 
name Abloc^ Abloec^ &c, which is often substituted for the 

1 Lines 138, 139, 264, 265, can be omitted without injury to the 
sense. And 1. 11 76 has to be emended, in order to make 11. 11 77-1 180 
fit in. 


Norse name Olqf-r> OE. Anlaf. Whether they are phonetic- 
ally equivalent is open to doubt, as M. Forster points out 
in Anglia, Beiblatt, vol. xiv, p. 13. 

Hence until recently it has been assumed that the story 
of Havelok was the story of Olaf Sictricson, though the 
points of connexion were not very clear. Heyman, however, 
puts forward a new theory. He shows that the facts of 
Olaf's life have little in common with the events related in 
Havelok ; and supposes that the deeds of King Swein, who 
became King of England in 1013, are really the basis of 
the Havelok tale, but have been fathered upon Olaf Sictric- 
son. He considers further that in some points stories 
connected with Olaf Tryggvason, the conqueror at Maldon, 
have been fused into the lay. Quite independently, 
Deutschbein also denies anything more than a nominal 
connexion with Olaf Sictricson, and sees in the Havelok 
tale the deeds of Olaf's uncle Reginwald, again with some 
features from the life of Olaf Tryggvason. 

If these divergent views point to any result, it is that the 
Havelok story corresponds to no history at all. Popular 
romances must not be taken too seriously, even when they 
contain historical names. Only two such names occur in 
the English story : Havelok, who on the evidence of other 
versions is identified with Olaf Sictricson, a tenth-century 
king-; and his father Birkabeyn — Roger Hoveden's Swerre 
Birkebain, chief of the Birkibeinar^ — who became King of 
Norway in 1 1 84. The peculiar parallelism of the main events 
of the story, the repeated happy coincidences which are of its 
essence, belong not to history, but to the story-book. 

§ 17. Legendary Elements. To discuss all the ana- 
logues of the Havelok story would require a volume in 
itself, for it uses many of the stock themes of romance. 
1 The name means ' wearing leggings of birch-bark'. 

METRE xxvii 

The flame of fire issuing from Havelok's mouth as he lay 
asleep (11. 591, 1256) reminds us of Servius Tullius, around 
whose infant head flames were seen to play in his slumbers. 
The birth-mark which discloses his rank at a critical moment, 
his visions of conquest, the descriptions of the games and 
festivals, all these have their analogues in many mediaeval 
romances. More characteristic features of the story are also 
met with elsewhere. In the Introduction to his Hamlet 
in Iceland, London, 1898, Professor Gollancz discusses the 
possible connexion between Hamlet and Havelok ; and 
more recently R. Zenker, Boeve-Amlethus, Berlin and 
Leipzig, 1905, has considered the same point, and extended 
the comparison to the Beves Romance. Deutschbein claims 
kinship with the Celtic Meriaduc Saga ; and there are many 
points of contact with French romances. It cannot, how- 
ever, be said in any one case that a definite relation in 
essential incidents has been proved beyond doubt. 

§ 18. Metre. The natural method of scansion followed 
by Professor Skeat is fully explained in his article on ' The 
Scansion of English Poetry', printed in the Phil. Soc. 
Transactions for 1908; and in his Chaucer, vol. vi, p. lxxxiv. 
As yet many points in the history of Anglo-French and 
Middle English metres remain controversial, and our 
knowledge is certainly not precise enough to decide such 
minute points as the order of words in the verse, or 
the omission and addition of unstressed syllables, against 
the authority of the single manuscript. Smoothness to 
a modern ear is not a sufficient defence for emendation, 
because it is not known what the poet's ideal of smoothness 
was, or to what extent he attained his aim in practice. 

The poem is written in rimed couplets, with occasional 
larger groups of verses riming together, as for instance 
11. 87-105. Alliteration, the native habit, is rare, though 


it appears in a few phrases like stark and strong) lef and 
loth) sory and sorful; felede his foos. Each line contains 
four stresses. For the rest, where the text is sound in 
grammar and sense, it is safest to give the MS. the benefit 
of any doubt, and to allow such normal licences as in- 
version of the accent, and substitution of one or three 
syllables for the typical disyllabic foot. 

§ 19. The Rimes. The study of rime-words is of great 
importance; for while the body of the line, especially in 
a popular tale, is subject to continual alterations, the rime- 
words are comparatively stable. This may be seen by 
comparing the text of the later Cambridge Fragments. 
Hence the importance of rimes for determining the original 
text and dialect of the poem. 

Many couplets as they stand in the MS. do not rime. 
Sometimes we have to do with conventional rimes, as at 
11. 21-2 ryw.fyn. Sometimes scarcity of rime-words may 
account for the deficiency, as at 11. 1101-2 shop : hok. The 
remainder were once explained as assonances ; but in early 
texts which rime carefully — and Havelok is such a text — 
assonance is only to be assumed in the last resort. In 
general, a false rime in Havelok indicates corruption. 
Scribes sometimes substitute an English for a Norse word 
or form, as in the instances pointed out in the notes to 
11. 1037-8 and 1397-8; sometimes they write an English 
alternative form instead of the original riming form ; some- 
times they blunder hopelessly. 

So whenever a pair of words give a defective rime, it 
is necessary to consider the possible alternatives. In 
11. 1698-9, for instance, the MS. has shewe : lowe. The 
source of the first word, OE. sceawian, according as the 
diphthong is stressed on the first or second element, yields 
ME. shewe or shuwe ; and shame remains in the North, but 


elsewhere becomes shgwe. In the same way OE. hlaw 
gives ME. law or Igw ; but its by-form hlxw would give 
ME. lew. Hence any of the rimes schewe : lewe ; shawe : 
lawe ; showe : lowe may have been in the original, as far 
as can be judged from this case. Again, 11. 2698-9 show 
gres : is ; where gres has an alternative form gras, and is 
has an alternative Northern form es. Here we must choose 
the points of contact gres : es. 

For inflexions and phonology, too, rimes are of the 
highest importance. But it is necessary to distinguish 
those which are decisive from those which are ambiguous. 
Thus in 11. 2282-3 filattinde : gangande, the rime might be 
restored by making both participles end in -inde, or -ande, 
or -ende, or -ing. The instance merely proves that the 
extant manuscript does not retain the original forms. But 
at 11. 1692-3 nedes \fedes, because nedes is the adverb, it is 
clear that the maker of the rime used the ending -es in the 
third person present indicative singular fedes. Or, to take 
a point of phonology, 11. 1924-5 her \ per are ambiguous, 
since the known alternative forms har\par or hor\por 
would rime perfectly. But in 11. 234-5 sor\hor, the Norse 
form hor {par) is. proved, since sor (sar)<OE. sdr can have 
no e forms. 

§ 20. Phonology. With this help it is possible to deal 
with some points in the phonology of the original. 

(1) OE. and ON. a remains a in the North, but becomes 
open [g~] in the South and most of the Midlands. In 
Havelok both forms appear in the extant MS., q pre- 
dominating. But the rimes show bape (bgpe) at 11. 2595, 
2936, riming with rape <0E. hrape, which has a by length- 
ening in ME., but never 0. On the other hand OE. swd 
gives in ME. swd and s(w)p, which latter, owing to the 
influence of w, has a by-form s(w)o with close p. This form 


must be present in the rimes with 11. 713, 2739 ^<0E. 
don, and with 11. 325, 2136, 2961 &?<0E. to. These 
instances are sufficient to prove that OE. a had in some 
cases become g in the dialect of the original. Hence 
presumably Havelok was written in a district where both 
a and g were possible, that is to say, in the North Mid- 

(2) OE. } (umlaut of u) remains in the South-west with 
the spelling u ; appears as e in the South-east ; and as 1 in 
the Midlands and North. Therefore the frequent rimes 
like 11. 587-8, 1253-4 fir\schir (OE. jyr, sclr), and 
11. 1379-80, 1419-20 inne : sinne (OE. innan, synn) are 
decisive, in the absence of conflicting evidence, for the 
North or Midlands. 

(3) ME. has two values, open g (the sound in law), and 
close o, as in French tot. Open g normally derives from 
OE. or ON. a, and lengthened in open syllables. Close 
5 derives from OE. ; and the two sounds are so different 
that they can hardly rime together. Apparent instances in 
Havelok are common so and 1. 1805 two, where the close 
sound is due to the influence of w as explained above 
under (1); and 11. 789-90 horn \grom, a difficult rime. 

(4) In the same way ME. e has two values, open f and 
close e, with sounds corresponding to air (roughly) and 
French ete\ Open § normally corresponds to OE. (Mercian) 
Be, ea, and e lengthened in open syllables. Close e corre- 
sponds to OE. (Mercian) e, eo. In Havelok the word se< 
OE. sde, f sea' rimes close, e.g. at 11. 519, 553, 561, 581, 
673, 719; as it does in other ME. texts which generally 
keep / and e apart. But in Havelok normal / and e com- 
monly rime together, perhaps because in certain parts of the 
North and Midlands §>e before dental consonants d, t, s, n, 
r, /; see Btilbring, Furnivall Miscellaity, p. 42. Observe 


for instance 11. 11-12 y-here\y~lere\ 11. 244-5 reden \ leden ; 
11. 2084-5 bede-.rede; 11. 995-6 clene-.grene. 

(5) Where a text has any claims to belong to the 
thirteenth century, it is worth noticing what evidence it 
contains for the lengthening of short vowels in open 
syllables. In the great majority of cases such vowels in 
Havelok rime only with themselves. There are only two 
clear indications of lengthening in Teutonic rime pairs : 
11. 2594, 2937 rape<OE. hrape which rimes with bape. 
Further see the notes to 11. 55-6, 1311-12, and 2496-7. 

§ 21. The Phonology of some Worse words. Have- 
lok is saturated with Norse words. Indeed their number 
is so great as to be in itself evidence of composition in 
some stronghold of Norse influence, such as Lincolnshire 
is known to have been. Here we have indeed a mixed 
dialect. The poet uses at will a Norse flexional form like 
the plural hend, ' hands ', and prefers Norse words where 
the English would pass as well for rime, e. g. 11. 240-1, 
laten-.graten or 11. 1 800-1, coupe : loupe ', where the English 
leten \greten, chepe : lepe would, in form at least, have served. 
In many cases, as is shown in the Notes, English copyists 
have removed the Norse forms, often spoiling the rimes. 
A few general tests of Norse loan-words are here given, and 
the references must be sought in the Glossary. 

(1) To Non-WS. e (WS. de), which becomes e in ME., 
corresponds an ON. a, which in ME. becomes g in the 
South and South Midlands, but remains a in the North. 

Hence ON. ar, warum, hdr ('hair'), lata, grata, rdda, 
rdd, yield in the poem or (are-), wore {ware), hdr, late, gtate, 
rope, rap, while the corresponding English words with He or e 
yield er, were, her, lete, grete, reden, red, all of which occur 
in Havelok. 

(2) To OE. a, which yields in ME. a or p as above. 


corresponds ON. ei. Hence ON. ei, greifi, bleik-r, weik-r, 
-leik-r (suffix), leik-r, leika, svein-n, keisari, teit-r, beita, leita, 
greiSa appear as ay, greyue, bleike, wayke, (hende)-/^, leyk, 
layke, sweyn, caysere, teyte, beite, kite, greype, of which words 
bleike has a corresponding English form Make, ' white 7 , in 
the poem, while bon corresponds to (Birki)fo/«. 

(3) To OE. ea, which yields in ME. /, corresponds an 
ON. au (0), which appears in ME. as ou, ow, (0). Hence 
*pauh (poJi), auk (ok), gaula, kaupa, laupa, rauta, blaut-r 
appear as pou(h), ok, goulen, coupe, loupe, rowte, bloute ; 
besides which occur the English forms J>ey(h), ek, lepe. 

(4) OE. k + 2L front vowel yields in ME. ch, whereas ON. 
k remains unpalatalized. Hence ON. kirkja, serk-r, kriki 
give kirke, serk, crice. Havelok shows no instance of chirche 
< OE. cirice. 

(5) In the same way ON. has g, where OE. has the 
palatalized sound in modern bridge. Hence, as the rimes 
prove, rig is ON. hrygg-r, not OE. hrycg, modern ridge ; 
lenge is ON. lengja, not OE. lengan. 

Other divergent forms are wil<ON. vill-r, not OE. 
wllde ; sterne < ON. stjarna, not OE. steorra ; brini< ON. 
brynja, not OE. by me. For further borrowings see the 

§ 22. Inflexions. Nouns. As regards the nouns 
employed, we may remark that the final e is almost always 
sounded in the oblique cases, and especially in the dative" 
case ; as in nede, stede, &c. (see 11. &6-1 05) ; wille, 8$ ; 
wise, 1 7 13; blisse, 2187; crice, 2450; cf. the adjectives 
lesse, 1830; longe, 2299; also the nominatives rose, 2919; 
newe, 2974; and the genitives herte, 70; mere, 2478; with 
-£<OE. -an. In the plural, the final e is fully pronounced 
in adjectives : alle, 2 ; harde, 143 ; bleike, 470; starke, 10 15 ; 
&c. ; and it is common in weak singulars such as (fie) beste, 


87. Not only does the phrase none kines, of no kind, 
occur in 11. 86 r, 1140, but we find the unusual phrase 
neuere kines, of never a kind, in 1. 2691 ; though neuere 
is here almost certainly an error for none. Among the 
numerals, we find not only pre (1399), but ON.prinne. 

Pronouns. In the MS. the first personal pronoun occurs 
in many forms in the nominative, as /, y, hi, ich, ic, hie, 
and even ihc; the oblique cases take the form me. For 
the second person, we have pu, pou, in the nominative, and 
also tu, when preceded by pat, as in 1. 2903. We may 
notice also hijs for his, 47; he for they (generally); sho, 
112, scho, 126, sche, 1721, for she. The forms she and sho 
are explained in the New Eng. Diet, as different develop- 
ments of OE. seo, feminine article. Note the peculiar 
dual form unker, of you two, 1882 ; and the pi. es, 'them', 
for which see the Glossary. This es or is is possibly short 
for his, actually used in the accusative plural, though some 
equate it to the G. sie ; see the two articles on fHis in the 
New Eng. Diet. The most noteworthy possessive pronouns 
are mine, pi. 1365; pine, pi. 620; his or hise, pi. hise, 34; 
ure, 606; youres, 2801 ; hire, 84, 2918, with which cf. the 
dat. sing, hire of the personal pronoun, 300. pis is plural, 
and means these, in 1. 1145 ; but in 1. 606 it is short for pis 
is. As in other old English works, men is frequently an 
impersonal pronoun, answering to the French on, and is 
followed by a singular verb ; as in men ringes, 390 ; men 
seyth and suereth, 647 ; men fetes, 2341 ; men nam, 900 ; men 
birpe, 2101 ; men dos, 2434; cf. folk sau, 2410; but there 
are a few instances of its use with a plural verb, as men 
haueden, 901, men shulen, 747. The former is the more 
usual construction. 

Verbs. The infinitives of verbs rarely have y- prefixed ; 
three examples are y-here, 11; y-lere, 12; y-se, 334. Nor 

1818 c 


is the same prefix common before past participles ; yet we 
find i-gret, 163; i-groten, 285; and i-maked, 5, as well as 
maked, 23. ' Infinitives end commonly in -en or -e, as riden, 
26, y-lere, 12 ; also in -n, as don, 117, leyn, 718; notice also 
forms like flo, 612; slo, 1364; fie, 11 95. The present 
singular, 3rd person, of the indicative, ends both in -es or -s, 
and -eth or -th, the former being the more usual. Examples 
are longes, 396, 1443, haldes, 1382, fedes, 1693, ^, 1744, 
comes, 1767, /<?#£?, 1 781, 2105, glides, 1851, parnes, 19 13, 
haues, 1952, g/w, 2036, foray, 2323, /^, 2341, foafe.r, 2392, 
/#&?, 2573, strenes, 2983 ; *&.?, 19 13 ; also eteth, 672, haueth, 
804, bikenneth, 1269, suereth, dereth, 647, 648; /^, 673, 
afo//£, 1876. The form of the 2nd person is -est, in louest 
(before a vowel), 1663; but it is commonly -es, as haues, 
688, £/&r, 907, getes, 908, slepes, 1283, weldes, 1359 ; cf. dfo, 
2390, .y/<w, 2706, mis-gos, 2707 ; and this still more marked 
in rime, as wenes, 598. The same ending is observable 
in the past tense, as in dedes, 2393, reftes, 2394, feddes and 
claddes, 2907. The AS. meaht, miht, answers to maght, 
1348; cf. 11. 689, 852, 1219. The subjunctive mood 
shows the forms butepou gonge, 6 90, pat pu fonge, 856, &c. ; 
cf. bede, 668. In the 3rd person, present tense, of the same 
mood, we have the -e fully pronounced, as in shilde, 1 6, yeue, 
22, Use, 333, leue, 334, rede, 687; and in 1. 544 wreken 
should undoubtedly be wreke, since the -en belongs to the 
plural, as in moten, 18. The plural of the indicative present 
commonly ends in -en, as, we hauen, 2798, ye witen, 2208, 
pel taken, 1833; or, very rarely, in -eth, as ye bringeth, 2425, 
he (they) strangleth, 2584. Sometimes the final -n is lost; 
note wone, 1325, to-deyle, 2099, binde, 2583 (in rimes). 
The present tense has often & future signification, as in eteth, 
672, etes, 907, getes, 908 ; and in beth, 1260, bes, 1744. 
Note. The rimes show that the third person singular 


in -es belongs to the original dialect of the poem (examine 
the examples). It was afterwarols copied out in the south 
of England, by a scribe who frequently turned -es into -eth. 
The only examples at the end of a line are suereth, dereth, 
647-8 ; instead of sweres, deres. 

Past tense. Of the third person singular and plural of 
the past tense the following are selected examples. Weak 
Verbs: hauede, 770, sparede, 898, yemede, 975, semede, 976, 
sparkede, 2144, ft ankede, 2189; pi. loueden, 955, leykeden, 954, 
woundeden, 2429, stareden, 1037 , yemede, 2276, makeden, 554, 
sprauleden, 475. Also calde, 211 5, gredde, 2417, herde, 2410, 
kepte, 879, fedde, 786, ledde, 785, spedde, 756, clapte, 1814, 
kiste, 1279; auhte, 743, lauhte, 744, bitauhte, 2212; pi. herden, 
150, brenden, 594, kisten, 2162, ledden, 1246. Compare the 
past participles /te^ 3 971, mixed \ 2$33,parred, 2439, gadred, 
2577; r^/?, 1367, >£<?/?, 2005, wend, 2138, /£j^, 1059; &>/</, 
1036, .ft?/*/, 1638, wrouht, 1352. There are also at least three 
past participles in -£/, as spuset, 1266, slenget, 1923, grepet, 
2615 ; to which add MS. weddeth, beddeth, 1127 ; this -<?/ or 
-#$ is an AF. form of -«#/. In 1. 2057, knawed seems to 
represent the modern ' knowed ' ; see the note. 

Strong Verbs : third person singular, past tense, bar, 815, 
bad, 141$, yqf or gaf, 218, 315, spak, 2389, kam, 766 (spelt 
cham, 1873), nam, 900, kneu, 2468, ^<?Z£>, 2729, lep, 1777, /<?/ 
(spelt /<?//£), 2651, step, 1280, «/£#, 281; drou, 705, for, 2943, 
/<?z£/, 903, slow, 1807, z^, 2750, .$•/<%/, 986, tok, 75 r, zew/£, 
2093; pi. beden, 2774, youen or gouen, 164, comen, 1017 
(spelt fe^<?, 1208), nome?i, 2790 (spelt ^ewe, 1207), knewen, 
2149, ^A^, 1896, slepen, "2128; drowen, 1837, foren, 2380, 
lowen, 1056, slowen, 2414, &c. By way of further examples, 
we may instance the singular forms bigan, 1357, forze/, 2022, 
&z^ 471, swank, 788, warp, 1061, .?&?#, 2144, <f/<?/J 2643, 
ja#, 24.10, grop, 1965, tffo?/, 725, 5/^/5 892, fauth ( = fau/it), 


1990 ; pi. bigunnen, 1011, sowen, 1055, gripen, 1790, afoW 
for driuen, 1966; also bunden, 2436, schuten, 2431 (also 
schoten, 1864, shoten, 1838), /^«, 2132, &c. Compare the 
past participles foras, 1878, jjw/^ or yeuen, 1643, cumen, 
1436, nomen, 2265 (also numen, 2581), /#/£fc, 1925, waxen, 
302, draw en, 1925, slawen, 2000. The two last become 
drawe, slawe in 11. 1802, 1803. 

We should also observe the past tenses ^^ (i. e. spende), 
1 8 19; 5-&W, 812, «V&, 942, &?r<? (subj.), 974, kipte, 1050, 
7ft?z#, 2502; and the past participles demd for denied, 2488, 
£*W for giuen, 2488, henged, 1429, /»/<?/, 2755. 

Imperative Mood. Examples of the imperative mood 
singular, 2nd person, are et, sit, 925, late, 1376, bringge, 
1 381; in the plural, the usual ending is -es, as in lipes, 2204, 
comes, 1798, folwes, 1885, /<?££$•, 2292, fos, 2246, to which 
set belong slos, 2596, dos, 2592 ; but there are instances of 
the ending -eth also, as in cometh, 1885, yeuep, 911, to which 
add doth, 2037, £#//#, 1780; MS. herknet (for herkneth), 1. 
Indeed, both forms occur in one line ; as in Cometh sivipe, 
and folwes me (1885). 

Of reflexive verbs, we meet with me dremede, 1284, me 
haueth met, 1285, me pinkes, 2169, him hungrede, 654, M711 
semede, 1652, him stondes, 2983, ^/;^ rewede, 503. The 
present participles, curiously enough, end mostly in -inde, 
as fastinde, 865, grotinde, 1390, lauhwinde, 946, plattinde, 
2282, starinde, 508; but we also find gangande, 2283, 
driuende, 2702. Compare the noun tipande, 2279, which is 
a Norse form, tidindi (pi.) being the Icelandic for 'tidings'. 
The suffix -/#£■ occurs as a noun-ending <??z/y, never in the 
present participle. Examples of it are greting, 166, dreping, 
i. e. slaughter, 2684, buttinge, skirming, wrastling, putting, 
harping, piping, reding, see 11. 2322-7 ; also coruning, 2948, 
ioying, 2949. Amongst the auxiliary verbs may be noted 


the use of cone, 622, as the subjunctive form of canst] we 
mone, 840, answering to prov. E. mun, i.e. must. We should 
particularly observe the use of the comparatively rare verbs 
birp, it behoves, pa. t. birde, it behoved, dx&fiurte, he need; 
for which see the Glossary. 

The prefix to- is employed in two senses, as explained in 
the Glossary, s. v. To-. In to-brised, to-deyle, &c, it is equi- 
valent to the German zer- and Latin dis- ; of its other and 
rarer use, wherein it answers to the German zu- and to the 
Gothic du-, there is but one instance, viz. in the word to-yede, 
765, which signifies e went to ' ; cf. Germ, zugehen, ' to go to ', 
zugang (AS. to gang), ' access ', ' approach '. There are several 
instances of the peculiar syntax whereby the infinitive mood 
active partakes of a passive signification, as in he made him 
kesten infeteres, ' he caused him to be cast into fetters '; 1. 8r. 
It may be considered as a phrase in which we should now 
supply the word men, and we may interpret it by ' he caused 
[men] to cast him into fetters and to fasten him securely ' ; 
for in 11. 1784, 1785, the phrase is repeated in a less 
ambiguous form. See also 1. 86. So also, in 11. 26 n, 2612, 
we must consider keste, late, sette, to be in the infinitive mood. 
This construction is at once understood by comparing it 
with the German er Hess ihn binden, he caused him to be 
bound. In 1. 2352 appears the most unusual form ilker, 
written for ilk here, i. e. each of them. The word prie, 730, 
answers to the ME. adverb thrie, thrice, but it must be an 
error, possibly for yete ; Hues, 509, is an adverb ending in 
-es, originally a genitive case, pus-gate is, according to 
Dr. Morris, unknown to the Southern dialect; it occurs in 
11. 785, 2419, 2586; cf. hwilgat, 836. 

§ 23. The Spelling. The manuscript spelling appears, 
at first sight, to be of a very lawless character, but is easily 
understood in the light of Professor Skeat's discovery (in 


1897) that many of our earlier MSS., especially those of the 
thirteenth century, abound with spellings which can only 
be understood rightly when we observe that the scribe was 
of Norman birth, and more accustomed to the spelling of 
Anglo-French than to that of the native language of the 
country, which he had acquired with some difficulty, and 
could not always correctly pronounce. This curious 
phenomenon, due to the resolute attempt on the part of 
the Norman to acquire English, is fully explained in Pro- 
fessor Skeat's paper on ' The Proverbs of Alfred ', read on 
May 7, 1897, and printed in the Transactions of the Philo- 
logical Society for that year (p. 399). See also the canons 
in an Appendix to 'Notes on English Etymology', p. 471. 
With this clue, the spelling of our MS. becomes perfectly 
intelligible, and the English consonants are so easily 
recovered, that it seems convenient to restore the usual 
Middle-English spelling in a number of instances, and 
to relegate the Anglo-French spellings of the MS. to the 
bottom of the page, where every variation between the 
printed text and the MS. is carefully recorded, according to 
the notice at the bottom of p. 1. The correspondences 
between the AF. and ME. spellings are easily tabulated. 

MS. Spellings Removed to the Foot-notes. 

(1) g occasionally appears as gh in ghod, 255; bringhe, 
65 ; pinghe, 66. 

(2) h is omitted in aueden, 163; auelok, 503; &c. Con- 
versely h is added inorganically in her, 15 ; holde, 30 ; hayse, 

59 i & c- 

(3) hw frequently appears as w in Wo, 4 ; Wil, 6 ; with, 
48; &c. 

(4) -ht, commonly written ht or p in ME., appears as : — 

ht very rarely, e. g. Riht, 1826. 


th commonly, e.g. drouth, 84; nouth, 149; &c. 
J> is not used in this value. 1 

cht in mouchte, 147 (pouthte, 1073, may be a slip). 
cth in micth, 35; knicth, 77, 80; nV//£, 78; &c. 
ct in bitaucte, 206; awcte, 207; mowcte, 210; &c. ' 
^ in browt, 58 ; «<?ze//, 123 ; /fe'/, 2427 ; &c. 

(5) 5^ as i- in sal, 628 ; $00^, 1941 ; sule, 2419 ; &c., and 
iny%AS", 216, ^^, 217. 

(6) ^as Afc in with, 48; zew/^, 213; /<?M, 252; neth, 808; &c. 

(7) th as / finally in Herknet, 1 ; ze/zV, 19, 52, 113 ; &c. 

(8) ^ as w in JjTw, 93 ; &c, and, with loss of h, as ze/, 120 ; 
&c. Note the MS. in 1. 288. 

(9) ze/# appears as w in wman, 174, 281; swngen, 226; 
ze^tf, 434 j wnden, 546; ze/^ 573. 

There are also a great many careless spellings, the 

commonest of which is the omission of a final consonant, 

here enclosed in brackets, e.g. hel[d\ 109; gol\d\ 357; 

forthwar\d\ 731 ; lon\d\ 340; we\J\ 115, 287, 392; pe\r\ 

142, 476, 639 ; bes[t\ 354. 

Less common is the omission of a medial consonant, as 
in k\n\aue, 481 ; b\r\igge, 881 ; goldebo\r]w, 1103. 

Confusion between letters of similar form occurs in kayn 
for payn? 31, 1327 ; and in Ke for He at the beginning of 
11. S6, 87. 

A certain number of the spellings consigned to the foot- 
notes represent genuine English forms : such are drinchen, 
$53; dreinchen, 56 r, with common raising of the stem 
vowel; wilte, 528, 1135 ■> penkeste, 578, with normal weaken- 
ing of unstressed u to e; may(/z)t, 641, 689, 845, 852, &c. 
Very likely here belong regular eueril-del, which seems to 
show an assimilation ; and common an for and. 

1 The MS. has rithe, not ripe, at 1. 120 1. 

2 On confusion oik-.p see Zupitza, Anglia, vol. iii. 375. 


MS. Spellings Retained. 

(i) qu for OE. hw is a common spelling in the North and 
Midlands, and points to strong aspiration. Examples are 
qui, 1650; qual, 753; Quanne, 134, 162; &c. 

(2) r strongly trilled is indicated in the spellings boren : 
koren, 1878-9; arum : harum, 1982-3, 2408-9. 

(3) u in the neighbourhood of letters of similar form like 
m, n, u, is written o for the sake of distinctness. Hence 
gome : trome, 7-8, represent OE. guma, truma ; and wone : 
sone, 246-7, 1325-6, represent OE. wunian, sunu. In 
11. 2580-1, comen\numen, both representations are found. 
This spelling first becomes common in the second half of 
the thirteenth century; see Napier, History of the Holy 
Rood-tree, E. E. T. S., 103, p. 8^. The pronunciation 
remains [u], 

(4) u appears sometimes as u (w), sometimes as ou {ow), 
the French spelling. The riming pairs often show both forms, 
e.g. mouth \suth, 433-4; doun-.tun, 1 630-1 ; crus\hous, 
1966-7; wounde : grunde, 1978-9. This spelling hardly 
becomes general till the fourteenth century (see Napier, 
loc. at), and the pronunciation is of course always \u\. 


The following abbreviations are used in the foot-notes : — 

E. — Ellis, * Early English Pronunciation", London, 1869, Part ii, 
p. 470. 

G. = Garnett ; see E. E. T. S. edn., 1868, pp. liv f. 

H. = Holthausen ; the references are to Holthausen's first edition 
(1901), not the second (1910). 

K. — Kolbing ; see above, p. vii. 

Mb. = Morsbach ; see above, p. vii. 

Z. = Zupitza ; see above, p. vii. 




XJ ERKNETH to me, gode men, [Fol. 204, col. l.] 

Wiues, maydnes, and alle men, 
Of a tale ich you wil telle, 
Hwo-so it wile here, and per-to duelle. 
pe tale of Hauelok is i-maked ; 5 

Hwil he was litel, he yede ful naked. 
Hauelok was a ful god gome, 
He was ful god in eueri trome, 
He was J>e wihtest maw at nede 
pat J>urte viden on ani stede. 10 

pat ye mowen nou y-here, 
And pe tale ye mowen y-lere. 
At pQ bigi^ning of vre tale, 
Fil me a cuppe of ful god ale; 

And [y] wile driwken, er y spelle, 15 

pat Crist vs shilde alle fro helle ! 
Krist late vs eu^re so to do 
pat we moten comen him to ; 
And, with-J>at it mote ben so, 

[Wherever corrected forms are given in the text, the exact forms in 
the MS. are quoted in the footnotes. .] 

1. Herknet. 3. tale >at ich (pat is superfluous) ; wile. 4. Wo. 
5. is of hauelok. 6. Wil. 9. wicteste. 13. biginig («V). 

15. I supply y ; her. 17. heuere so for to. 19. wit. 


Benedzcamus domino 1 20 

Here y schal bigi^nen a rym, 

Krist us yeue wel god fyn! 

The rym is maked of Hauelok, 

A stalworjri man \n a flok; 

He was f>e [wihtest] ma« at nede 25 

pat may riden on ani stede. 

TT was a king bi are dawes, 

pat \n his time were gode lawes ■ 
He dede maken, and ful wel holden; 
Him louede yu#g, him loueden olde, 30 

Erl and barun, dreng and thayn, 
Kniht, [and] bondema^, and swain, 
Wydues, maydnes, pastes and clerkes, 
And al for hise gode werkes. 

He louede god with al his miht, 35 

And holi kirke, and soth, and riht; 
Riht-wise men he louede alle, 
And ou^ral made hem forto calle ; 
Wreieres and robberes made he falle, 
And hated hem so rria# doth galle ; 40 

Vtlawes and theues made he bynde, 
Alle that he mihte fynde, 
And heye hewgen on galwe-tre ; 
For hem ne yede gold ne fe. 

In }?at time a man J>at bore 45 

[Wel fifty pund, y wot, or more,] 
Of rede gold up-on his bac, [Fol. 204, col. 2.] 

25. stalworjjeste {read wihtest, as in 1. 9). 29. an. 30. 

- Hym ; louede holde. 31. kayn (!). 32. Knict. 35. micjth. 

36: ant ricttu 37. Rirth (!). 39. wrobberes (!). 42. 

micthe. 46. Supplied from conjecture; cf, 11. 653, 787. 

47. red; hijs. 


In a male hwit or blac, 
Ne funde he non f>at him misseyde, 
N[e] hond on [him] with iuele leyde. 50 

pa#ne mihte chapmen fare 
purhut Englond with here ware, 
And baldelike beye and seller, 
Oueral f>er he wilen dwellen, 

In gode burwes, and f>er-fram 55 

Ne funded he non f>at dede hem sham, 
pat he ne were« to sorwe brouht, 
And pouere maked, and browht to nouht. 
parcne was Engelond at ayse ; 
'i Michel was svich a king to preyse, 60 

pat held so Engelond in grith ! 
Krist of heuene was him with. 
He was Engelondes blome ; 
Was non so bold lond to rome, 
pat durste upon his [menie] bringe 6$ 

Hunger, ne [otherej wicke fringe. 
Hwan he felede hise foos, 
He made hem lurkera, and crepes in wros: 
pei hidden hem alle, and heldew hem stille, 
And diden al his herte wille. 70 

Riht he louede of alle fringe, 
To wronge micht him no ma« bridge, 
Ne for siluer, ne for gold : — 
So was he his soule hold. 
To f>e faderles was he rath, 75 

48. with. 50. N with iuele on hond leyde ; but see 1. 994. 

51. micthe. 52. fmruth ; wit. 57. werew sone to {omit 

sone) ; Drouth. 58. An; browt; nouth. 59. athayse (sic). 

61. englond. 65. / supply menie ; bringhe. 66. here (but 

razafothere); ]?inghe. 69. pe(forpd). 71. Ricth. 

B 2 


Hwo-so dede hem wrong or lath, 

Were it clerc, or were it kniht, 

He dede hem sone to haue# riht; 

And hwo-[so] dide widuen wrong, 

Were he neure kniht so strong 80 

pat he ne made him sone kesten 

In feteres, and fill faste festen; 

And hwo-so dide maydne shame 

Of hire bodi, or brouht in blame, 

Bute it were bi hire wille, 85 

He made him sone of limes spille. 

He was £>e beste kniht at nede 

pat euere mihte ride/z on stede. 

Or wepne wagge, or folc vt lede; 

Of kniht ne hauede he neu^re drede, 90 

pat he ne sprorag forth so sparke of glede, 

And lete him [knawe] of hise hand-dede, 

[Fol. 204 b, col. 1.] 
Hu he couj^e with wepne spede; 
And o]?er he refte him hors or wede, 
Or made him sone ha^des sprede, 95 

And ' louerd, m^rci ! ' loude grede. 
He was large, and no wiht gnede; 
Hauede he [neure] so god brede, 
Ne on his bord non so god shrede, 
pat he ne wolde ]?orwith fede 100 

Poure f>at on fote yede; 
Forto haue;* of him ]?e mede 
pat for vs wolde on rode blede, 

76. Wo. 77. knicth. 78. ricth. 79. wo ; dide. 

80. knicth. 82. And in feteresful. 83. wo. 84. brouth. 

86. Ke(!). 87. Ke waste; knith. 88. heuere micthe. 90. 

knith. 92. / supply knawe. 93. Hw. 97. wicth. 98. 

non {read neure). 99. h (fornon). 100. ]x>rwit. 


Crist, that al kan wisse and rede 

pat euere woneth in ani f»ede. 105 

IF pe king was hoten A^elwold, 
Of word, of wepne he was bold; 
In Engeland was neure kniht, 
pat betere held pe lond to riht. 

Of his bodi ne hauede he eyr no 

Bute a mayden swipe fayr, 
pat was so yung £>at sho ne cou]?e 
Gon on fote, ne speke with mouJ>e. 
pan him tok an iuel strong, 

pat he wel wiste, and under-fong, 115 

pat his deth was corner him on: 
And seyde, ' Crist, hwat shal y don ? 
Louerd, hwat shal me to rede? 
I wot ml wel ich haue mi mede. 
Hu shal nou mi douhter fare? 120 

Of hire haue ich michel kare; 
Sho is mikel in mi ]?ouht, 
Of me self is me riht nowht. 
No selcouth is, J^ouh me be wo; 
Sho ne ka^ speke, ne sho kan go. 125 

Yif scho couj^e on horse ride, 
And a thousand men bi hire syde ; 
And sho were comen in-til elde, 
And Engelond sho couj^e welde; 
And don of hem Q?at] hire were queme, 130 

And hire bodi cou]?e yeme, 

108. knicth. 109. hel; ricth. 113. wit. 115. we(!); 

fong; see note. 117. wat. 118. wat. 119. woth. 

120. W( = Hw = Hu). 122. J>outh. 123. rith nowt. 124. 

]?ou. 127. Perhaps omit And (H.) ; thousa^de. 128. helde. 

130. don hem of Jar; (read pat G.). 131. An. 


Ne wolde me neu^-e iuele like, 
Ne fouh ich were in heuene-rike 1 ' 

QUAiVNE he hauede f>is pleiwte maked, 
per-after stro/zglike [he] quaked. 135 

He sende writes sone on-on 

After his erles eu^re-ich on ; [Fol. 204 b, col. 2.] 

And after hise barwzs, riche and poure, 
Fro Rokesburw al into Douere, 

That he shuldew comen swi'f>e 140 

Til him, that was ful vnblif>e, 
To J>at stede per he lay 
In harde bondes, niht and day. 
He was so faste with yuel fest, 
pat he ne mouhte haue# no rest; 145 

He ne mouhte no mete ete, 
Ne he ne mouhte no ly]?e gete; 
Ne non of his iuel ]?at couf>e red; 
Of him ne was nouht buten ded. 

ALLE ]?at Ipe writes herden 150 

Sorful and sori til him ferde^; 
He wru/zgen hordes, and wepe# sore, 
And yerne preyde/z Cristes ore, 
pat he [wolde] tarnen him 

Vt of J>at yuel J>at was so grim ! 155 

pa;me he weren comen alle 
Bifor Ipe king into the halle, 
At Wi/zch6stre J>er he lay : 

133. Me]x>u; riche; {cf. 11. 2400, 2804). 142. ]>e (!). 143. 

nicth. 144. wit. 145, 146. mouthe. 146. hete. 

147. mouchte. 149. nouth. 151. an. 153. hore. 

154. J supply wolde. 


' Welcome/ he seyde, ' be ye ay ! 

Ful michel J>ank kan [y] yow 160 

That ye aren corner to me now ! ' 

QUAiVTNFE he weven alle set, 
And pe king haueden i-gret, 
He grete#, and goulede/z, and goue« hem ille, 
And he bad hem alle ben stille; 165 

And seyde, 'pat greti^g helpeth nouht, 
For al to dede am ich brouht. 
Bute nou ye sen pat i shal deye, 
Nou ich wille you alle preye 

Of mi douhter pat shal be 170 

Yure leuedi after me, 
Hwo may yemen hire so longe, 
Bopen hire and Engelonde, 
Til pat she wuman [be] of elde, 
And pat she mowe [hir] yemen and welde ? ' 175 

He ansuerede/z, and seyde# an-on, 
Bi [Iesu] Crist and bi seint Ion, 
That perl Godrigh of Cornwayle 
Was trewe ma#, with-ute/z faile ; 
Wis ma« of red, wis ma« of dede, r8o 

And men hauedew of h\m mikel drede. 
' He may alper-best hire yeme, [Fol. 205, col. 1.3 
Til pat she mowe wel ben quene/ 

PE king was payed of that rede ; 
A wel fair cloth bringen he dede, 185 

And per-on leyde pe messebok, 

163. aueden. 166. nouth. 167. brouth. 168. nov. 

170. douther. 172. Wo. 174. wman; supply be (Z.) ; 

helde. 175. ]?a; supply hir (H.). 177. Supply Iesu(E.). 

179. wit. 182. hire alj>er-best. 184. Rede. 185. wol. 


pe caliz, and pe pateyn ok, 

pe corporaus, pe messe-gere ; 

per-on he garte pe erl suere, 

pat he sholde yemen hire wel, 190 

With-utew lac, with-ute^ tel, 

Til f>at she were tuelf winter old, 

And of speche were bold ; 

And J>at she cou]?e of curteysye 

[Don,] and speken of luue-drurye ; 195 

And til ]?at she louen mouhte 

Hwom so hire to gode thouhte ; 

And paX he shulde hire yeue 

pe [hexte] man J?at mihte liue, 

pe beste, fayreste, the strangest ok: — 200 

pat dede he him sweren on pe bok. 

And panne shulde he Engelond 

Al bitechen in-to hire hond. 

QUATVNE £>at was sworn on [J>is] wise, 
pe king dede pe mayde« arise, 205 

And pe erl hire bitauhte, 
And al the lond he euere awhte 
[Of] Engelonde, eueri del ; 
And preide, he shulde yeme hire wel. 

PE king ne mowhte don no more, 210 

But yerne preyede Godes ore ; 
And dede him hosier wel and shriue 

191. wit. 192. For tuelf perhaps read twenti ; seel, 259 (if so, 

omifpaX); hold. 194. covJ»e. 195. Gon {read Don). 

196. mithe(!); seel. 257. 197. Worn; thoucte. 199. beste {read 
hexte, as in 1. 1080) ; micthe. 204. Oua^ne (!) ; his (read pis). 206. 
bitaucte. 207. awcte. 208. / supply Of. 210. mowcte. 


I wot, fif hundred sif»e and fiue; 

And ofte dede him sore swinge, 

And with hondes smerte di?zge ; 215 

So J>at J>e blod ran of his fleysh, 

pat tendre was, and swij>e neysh. 

He made his quiste swtye wel, 

And sone gaf it euere-ilk del. 

Hwan it was gouew, ne mihte men finde 220 

So mikel men mihte him in winde, 

Of his in arke, ne in chiste, 

In Engelond, J?at nomaw wiste: 

For al was youew, faire and wel, 

pat him was leued no catel, 225 

PAA 7 NE he hauede ben ofte swungen, 
Ofte shriue^, and ofte dungen, [Fol. 205, col. 2.] 
1 In manus tuas,' loude he seyde, 
Er J?at he Ipe speche leyde ; 

To lesu Crist bigan to calle, 230 

And deyede biforn his heyme# alle. 
pan he was ded, J>ere mihte men se 
pe meste sorwe that mihte be; 
per was sobbing, siking, and sor, 
Handes wringing, and drawing bi hor. 235 

Alle greten swij>e sore, 
Riche and poure f>at f>ere wore; 
And mikel sorwe hauede/z alle, 
Leuedyes in boure, knihtes in halle. 

213. woth; sipes. 214. An. 215. wit. 216. fleys. 

217. neys. 218, 219. MS. transposes. 220. Wan; micte. 

221. micte. 226. swngen. 229. Her. 232, 233. micte. 
238. An. 239. knictes. 


QUAN J>at sorwe was somdel laten, 240 

And he hauede# longe graten, 
Belles dedew he sone ringen, 
Monkes and pastes messe singen ; 
And sauteres deden he manie reden, 
pat God self shulde his soule ledew 245 

Into heuene, biforn his sone, 
And Ipei with-uten ende wone. 
pan he was to J>e evlpe brouht, 
pe riche erl ne foryat nouht, 

pat he ne dede al Engelond ' 250 

Sone sayse iwtil his hond ; 
And in Ipe castels let he do 
pe knihtes he mihte tristew to ; 
And alle Ipe Englis dede he swere#, 
pat he shuldew him god fey beren ; 255 

He yaf alle men f>at god [him] J>ouhte, 
Liuen and deyen til ]?at [he] mouhte, 
Til J>at Ipe kinges dowhter wore 
Tuenti winter old, and more. 

PAiVNE he hauede token Jns oth 260 

Of erles, baru?zs, lef and loth, 
Of knihtes, cherles, fre and J?ewe, 
Iiistfses dede he maken newe, 
Al Engelond to faren J>orw, 

Fro Douere into Rokesborw. 265 

Schireues he sette. bedels, and gr^yues, 
Grith»sergea«s, with \onge gleyues, 

' 247. wit uten hende. 248. brouth. 249. nouth. 252. leth. 

253. knictes; micte. 254. swere (see 1. 255). 255. ghod. 

256. / supply him; ]x>ucte. 257. him(r^a^he); moucte. 258. 

dowter. 259. hold. 262. knictes. 267. wit. 


To yeme/z wilde wodes and paf>es 
Fro wicke men, that wolde don scales; 
And forto haue« alle at his cri, 270 

At his wille, at his merci; 

pat non him durste ben ageyn, pFol. 205 b, col. 1.] 

Erl ne bamn, kniht ne sweyn. 
Wislike, for sothe, was him wel 
Of folc, of wepne, of catel. 275 

-Sojdike, in a litel J>rawe, 
Al Engelond of him stod awe; 
Al Engelond was of him adrad 
So is pe beste fro f>e gad. 

PE kirages douhter gan [to] f>riue, 280 

And wex Ipe fayrest wuma» on liue. 
Of alle f>ewes was she wis, 
pat gode weren, and of pris. 
pe mayden Goldeboru was hoten; 
For hire was mani a ter igroten. 285 

QUAiVNE J>e Erl Godrich him herde 
Of J>at mayden, hu wel she ferde ; 
Hu wis sho was, hu chaste, hu fayr, 
And f>at sho was f>e rihte eyr 

Of Engelond, of al J>e rike : — 290 

po bigan Godrich to sike, 
And seyde, 'Hwe]?er she sholde be 
Quen and leuedi ouer me? 
Hwefer sho sholde al Engelond, 

272. durste hen him. 273. knict. 274. soth. 276. 

lite (!). 278. adred, altered to adrad. 279. his. 280. douther 

bigan; read douhter gan to H. 281. wraan. 282. w (!) ; for was. 
287. hw we he ferde (!). 288. Hw ; w {for 2ndhx) ; hw. 289. 

rithe. 292. wej^er. 


And me, and mine, haue;* m hire hond? 295 

DaJ^eit hwo it hire thaue ! 

Shal sho it neu^re more haue. 

Sholde ic yeue a fol, a £erne, 

Engelond, J^ouh sho it yerne? 

Da]:eit hwo it hire yeue 3°° 

Euere-more hwil i Hue ! 

Sho is waxen al to prud, 

For gode metes, and noble shrud, 

pat ic haue youen hire to ofte ; 

Ic haue yemed hire to softe. 305 

Shal it nouht ben als sho J?enkes: 

" Hope maketh fol maw ofte ble/zkes." 

Ich haue a sone, a ful fayr knaue, 

He shal Engelond al haue. 

He shal [ben] ki#g, he shal ben sire, 31° 

So brouke i eu^re mi blake swire ! ' 

TJWAN f>is tr^yson was al J>ouht, 
Of his oth ne was him nouht. 
He let his oth al ouer-ga, 

perof ne yaf he nouht a stra; 3 T 5 

But sone dede hire fete, 

Er he wolde eten ani mete, [Pol. 205 b, col. 2.] 

Fro Wiwch^stre, ]?er sho was, 
Also a wicke tray-tax Iudas ; 

And dede lede# hire to Doure, 320 

pat standeth on J>e seis oure; 
And perinne dede hire fede 
Pourelike in feble wede. 

299. >ou. 302. alto. 304. hie; ofFte. 305. Hie. 

306. nouth. 310. I supply ben. 312. Jouth. 313. 

nouth. 315. nouth. 317. hete/s. 322. >erhinne. 


pe castel dede he yemen so 

pat non ne mihte corner hire to 325 

Of hire frend, with [hir] to speke#, 

pat euere mihte hire bale wreke^. 

(~\F Goldeboru shul we nou laten, 

^-^ pat nouht ne bli/zneth forto graten 

per sho liggeth in prisoun : 330 

lesu Crist, that Lazarun 

To Hue brouhte fro dede bondes, 

He lese hire with hise hondes ; 

And leue sho mo[te] him y-se 

Heye hawgen on galwe-tre, 335 

pat hire haued in sorwe brouht, 

So as sho ne misdede nouht ! 

C AY we nou forth in ure spelle ! 

In f>at time, so it bifelle, 
Was in f>e lond of Denemark 340 

A riche king, and swy]?e stark. 
pe name of him was Birkabeyn, 
He hauede mani kniht and sueyn , 
He was fayr man, and [swif>e] wiht, 
Of bodi he was pe beste kniht 345 

pat eu^re mihte lede^ ut here, 
Or stede on ride, or ha/zdlen spere. 
pre children hauede he bi his wif, 
He hem louede so his lif. 

325. micte. 327. heuere micte. 329. nouth. 332. 

broucte. 333. wit. 334. mo (!) ; see 1. 406 (Z.). 336. 

brouth. 337. nouth. 338. Sawe nou; hure. 340. Ion. 

342. p (forpe). 343. knict. 344. I supply swi]?e (seel, 1651); 

wicth. 345. knicth. 346. micte; uth. 347. onne. 348. 

he hauede ; read hauede he H. 


He hauede a sone [and] douhtres two, 350 

SwiJ^e fayre, as fel it so. 

He J>at wile non forbere, 

Riche ne poure, king ne kayseVe, 

Deth him tok ]?a/z he best wolde 

Liuen, but hyse dayes were fulde; 355 

pat he ne mouhte no more Hue, 

For gold ne siluer, ne for no gyue. 

TJWAiV' he J?at wiste, raj>e he sende • 

After pastes fer and hende, 
Chanounes gode, and mo«kes be]?e, 360 

Him for to wisse, and to rede ; 
Him for to hoslen, and forto shriue, [Fol. 206, col. 1.] 
Hwil his bodi were on Hue. 

IJ WAN he was hosled [wel] and shriue^, 

His qm'ste maked, and for him gyuen, 365 

His knihtes dede he alle site; 
For J>orw hem he wolde wite 
Hwo mihte yeme hise children yunge, 
Til J>at he kouf>en spekew with iunge ; 
Speke» and gangen, on horse riden, 370 

Knihtes and sweynes bi here siden. 
He spoken J>er-of, and chosen sone 
A riche man Qmt,] under mone, 
Was J>e trewest, [as] he wende, 
Godard, fe kinges oune frende; 375 

354. bes(!). 356. moucte. 357. gol. 359. an. 

360. bope. 361. iort/im to (the km being expuncted) ; Rede. 

362. hoslon an. 364. Insert wel H. 366. knictes. 368. 

micte. 369. wit. 371. Knictes an. 372. offe. 

373. was under; read j?at under Z. 374. )>at he ; read as he Z. 


And seyden, he mouchte hem best loke, 

Yif £at he hem vndertoke, 

Til hise sone mouhte bere 

Helm on heiied, and \eden vt here, 

In his hand a spere stark, 380 

And king ben maked of Denemark. 

He wel trowede J>at he seyde, 

And on Godard handes leyde ; 

And seyde, ' Here bi-teche i f>e 

Mine children alle pre, 385 

Al Denemark, and al mi fe, 

Til J>at mi sone of elde be; 

But J>at ich wille, J>at f>ou suere 

On auter, and on messe-gere, 

On pe belles J>at men ridges, 390 

On messe-bok pe prest on singes, 

pat J?ou mine children shalt wel yeme, 

pat hire kin be ful wel queme. 

Til mi sone mowe ben kniht; 

pa/zne biteche him po his riht, 395 

Denemark, and f>at J>ertil lodges, 

Casteles and tunes, wodes and wowges.' 

/^ ODARD stirt up, and swor al f»at 

^-** pe king him bad, and styen sat 

Bi pe knihtes, }?at per ware, 400 

pat wepen alle swij>e sare 

For pe king J>at deide sone: 

lesu Crist, that makede mone 

On pe mirke niht to shine, 

376. Moucthe. 378. Mouthe. 387. helde. 388. J?o. 

392. we (I). 394. knicth. 395. Ricth; 398. an. 

400. knictes. 404. nith. 


Wite his soule fro helle pine ; 405 

And leue J>at it mote wone 

In heuene-riche with Godes sone ! [Fol. 206, col. 2.] 

"LJWAN Birkabeyn was leyd in graue, 

pe erl dede sone take pe knaue, 
Hauelok, J>at was pe eir, 410 

Swanborow, his sister, Elfled, pe [fair,] 
And in pe castel dede hem do, 
per non ne mihte hem corner to 
Of here kyn, £er J>ei sperd wore; 
per he greten ofte sore, 415 

BoJ>e for hunger and for kold, 
Or he weren pre winter old. 
Feblelike he gaf hem clones, 
He ne yaf a note of hise o}>es; 
He hem [ne] clopede riht, ne fedde, 420 

Ne hem dede richelike be-bedde. 
pa^ne Godard was sikerlike 
Vnder God pe moste swike, 
pat eure in erpe shaped was, 

With-uten on, pe wike Iudas. 425 

Haue he pe malisun to-day 
Of alle )?at eure speke/z may! 
Of p<z/riarke, and of pope, 
And of prest with loke# kope, 

Of monekes and h^rmftes boJ>e ! . . . 430 

And of pe leue holi rode 
[par] God him-selue ran on blode ! 

411. helfled ]>e toper {which will not rhyme}; read pe fair; cf. 
H.605-6. 412. he hem; omit he. 413. micte. 414. were; 

but see\.2tf. 417. hold. 420. / supply ne ; rith. 421. 

ne dede ; omit ne. 428. ptf/riark. 431. holi rode written 

over an erasure* 432. pat. 


Crist him warie with his mouth ! 

Waried wurthe he of nor}} and suth ! 

Of alle men, ]?at spekezz ku^ne, 435 

Of Crist, J^at made mone and su/mel 

pawne he hauede of al pe lond 

pe folk al tilled in-til his hond, 

And alle haueden swore^ him oth, 

Riche and poure, lef and loth, 440 

pat he sholden hise wille freme, 

And }>at he shulde# him nouht greme, 

He J?ouhte a ful strong trechery, 

A trayson and a felony, 

Of pe children forto make: 445 

pe deuel of helle him sone take! 

LJ WAiV J?at was J>ouht, onon he ferde 
To pe tour ]?er he woven sperde, 
per he grete« for hunger and cold: 
pe knaue, J?at was su^del bold, 450 

Kam him ageyn, on knes him sette, 
And Godard ful feyre he J>er grette. [Fol. 206b, col. 1] 
And Godard seyde, 'Hwat is you? 
Hwi grete ye and goule^ nou?' 

' For us hu/zgreth swi}?e sore/ 455 

Seyden he, '[We] wolde/z more: 
We ne haue to ete, ne we ne haue 
Herinne neyther kniht ne knaue 
pat yeueth us drinker, ne no mete, 
Haluercdel J>at we moun ete. 460 

433. warie him. 434. wrthe. 435. Offe ; man. 436. 

maude. 438. Al J)e folk. 442. shulde ; nouth. 443. 

Jjonthe. 447. >outh. 453. wat; yw. 456. supply 
We. 457. hete. 458. knith. 


Wo is us J?at we weren born ! 

Weilawei ! nis it no korn 

pat men mihte make^ of bred ? 

Us hungreth [so], we aren ney ded/ 

/^ODARD herde here wa, 465 

^"^ Ther-of yaf he nouht a stra, 

But tok ]>e maydnes bothe same«, 

Al-so it were up-on his garner; 

Al-so he wolde with hem leyke, 

pat were?* for hunger gr^ne and bleike. 470 

Of boj^en he karf on-two here f>rotes, 

And sif>en hem alto grotes. 

per was sorwe, hwo so it sawe, 

Hwan ]>e children bi J>e wawe 

Leyen and spraulede/z \n pe blod : 475 

Hauelok it saw, and £>er-bi stod 

Ful sori was f>at seli knaue, 

Mikel dred he mouhte haue; 

For at hise herte he saw a knif, 

For to reuen him hise lyf. 480 

But J>e knaue, £at litel was, 

He knelede bifore £>at Iudas, 

And seyde, ' Louerd, merci nou ! 

Mararede, louerd, biddi you ! 

Al Denemark i wile you yeue, 485 

To £at forward Ipu late me liue ; 

Here i wile on boke swere, 

pat neure more ne shal i bere 

463. micte. 464. fs (for ws = us) ; see 1. 455 : supply so. 466. 

offe; nouth. 468. hiis. 473. wo. 474. )> (for J>e). 

476. J>e {for J>*re = J>er). 478. mouthe. 481. kaue (!). 
482. bifor. 483. nov. 487. hi. 


Ayen Ipe, louerd, sheld ne spere, 

Ne oJ)er wepne that may you dere. 490 

Louerd, haue merci of me ! 

To-day i wile fro Denemark fie, 

Ne neuere more comen ageyn : 

Swerew y wole, J>at Bircabein 

Neuere yete me ne gat : ' — 495 

Hwan ]>e deuel herde ]?at, 

Sum-del bigan him forto rewe ; [Fol. 206 b, col. 2.] 

With-drow Ipe knif, £>at was lewe 

Of ]?e seli children blod. 

per was miracle fair and god, 500 

pat he Ipe knaue nouht ne slou, 

But for rewnesse him with-drow. 

Of Hauelok rewede him ful sore, 

And ]?ouh he wolde J>at he ded wore, 

But on J>at he [nolde] with his hend 505 

Ne drepe him nouht, f>at fule fend! 

pouhte he, als he him bi-stod, 

Starinde als he were wod : 

' Yif y late him Hues go, 

He mihte me wirchen michel wo. 510 

Grith ne get y neuere mo, 

He may [me] waiter for to slo; 

And yf he weifc brouht of liue, 

And mine children wolde» thriue, 

Louefdinges after me 515 

Of al Denemark mihten he be. 

489. shel. 490. wepne bere ; omit bere. 496. hede. 

501. nouth. 502. fo {sic) ; wit, where the initial letter is an A.S. 

w (j>), not ]>. 503. auelok. 504. And j>oucte; read And pouh. 

505. nouth wit. 506. nouth. 507. poucte. 510. micte. 

512. I supply me. 513. brouct. 516. micten. 

C 2 


God it wite, he shal ben ded, 
Wile i takew non of>er red; 
I shal do caster him in pe se, 

per i wile ]?at he drenched be; 520 

Aboute?z his hals an anker god, 
pat he ne flete in the flod.' 
per anon he dede sende 
After a fishere, £>at he wende 

pat wolde al his wille do, 525 

And sone anon he seyde him to : 
' Grim, pou. wost J>u art mi f>ral ; 
Wiltu don mi wille al 
pat i wile [nou] bidden f>e, 

To-morwen [i] shal makera pe fre, 530 

And auhte pe yeuen, and riche make, 
With-J^aw pw wilt f»is [knaue] take, 
And leden him with pe to-niht, 
pan f»ou sest pe mone-liht, 

In-to pe se, and don him per-inne; 535 

Al wile [i] take« on me pe sinne.' 
Grim tok pe child, and bond him faste, 
Hwil pe bondes mihte laste, 
pat weren of ful stro^ge line : — 
po was Hauelok in ful strong pine. 540 

Wiste he neuere er hwat was wo : 
lesu Crist, J>at makede go [Fol. 207, col. 1.] 

pe halte, and pe doumbe speke, 
- Hauelok, pe of Godard wreke ! 

519. she(!); read se. 520. drench. 528. Wilte; 

see 681. 529. Supply nou. 530. Supply i. 531. 

aucte. 532. child; read knaue. 533. nicht. 534. se (sic) 

Mone lith. 536. Supply i. 538. micte. 539. strong. 

540. For ful strong read stxongQ. 541. her wat. 542. to go; 

otn. to H. 543, 544. spekeTZ, wreken {with n in later hand). 


LJWAN Grim him hauede faste bou/zde«, 545 

And sij?e^ in an old cloth woimden, . . 
A keuel of clutes, ful un-wraste, 
pat he [ne] mouhte speke, ne fnaste, 
Hwere he wolde him bere or lede. 
Hwan he hauede don J>at dede, 550 

[As] J>e swike him [bad], he yede, 
pat he shulde him forth [lede] 
And him drenchen in Ipe se — 
pat forwarde [f>an] makeden he. 
In a poke, ful and blac, 555 

Sone he caste him on his bac, 
And bar him horn to hise cleue, 
And bi-taucte him dame Leue, 
And seyde, 'Wite J>ou J>is knaue, 
Al-so thou [wilt] mi lif [nou saue] ; 560 

I shal him drencher in J>e se, 
For him shole we ben maked fre, 
Gold hauew ynou, and of>er fe; 
pat haueth mi louerd bihotew me/ 

"LJWAN dame [Leue] herde J>at, 565 

Vp she stirte, and nouht ne sat, 
And caste f>e knaue so harde adoune, 
pat he crakede Ipei his croune 
Ageyn a gret ston, per it lay: 

po Hauelok mihte sei, 'Weilawei! 570 

pat eu^re was i kihges bern — 

546. eld; wnden. A line or two lost ; see note. 548. Supply 

ne ; mouthe. 551. Hwa« {read As) ; hauede; read bad. 552. 

Supply lede {see 1. 533). 553. drinchen {see 1. 583). 554. Supply 

J>an. 557. Ant. 560. with ; raw? wilt G. ; supply now; haue ; 

read saue H. 561. dreinchen him {see 1. 553). 564. hauet. 

565. Supply Leue. 566. nouth. 567. adoun so harde. 568. 

pet hise croune he ]>er crakede. 570. micte. 


pat him ne hauede grip or era, 

Leoun or wulf, wuluine or bere, 

Or o]?er best, J>at wolde him dereP 

So lay ]mt child to middel niht, 575 

pat Grim bad Leue bringe^ liht, 

For to don on [him] his clones : 

' Ne the/zkestu nowht of mine of>es 

pat ich haue mi louerd swore#? 

Ne wile i nouht be [nou] forloren. 580 

I shal him beren to J?e se, 

pou wost J>at [so bi-]houes me ; 

And i shal drenchen him J^er-inne; 

Ris up swi]?e, and go J>u binne, 

And blou f>e fir, and liht a kandel:' 585 

Als she shulde hise clones handel 

On forto don, and blawe £e fir, [Fol. 207, col. 2.] 

She saw per-inne a liht ful shir, 

Also briht so it were day, 

Aboute J>e knaue Iper he lay. 590 

Of hise mouth it stod a stem 

Als it were a sumiebem; 

Also liht was it ]?er-inne 

So J>er brenden cerges inne. 

c I^u Crzst ! ' [quath] dame Leue, 595 

' Hwat is J>at liht in ure cleue ! 

[Ris] up, Grim, loke hwat it menes, 

Hwat is f>e liht [here], as J>ou wenes?' 

He stirte^ bof>e up to the knaue — 

573. wlf wluine. 575. nicth. 576. lict. 577. 

him. 578. the^keste nowt. 580. nouth; supply nou. 581. 

beren him. 582. Supply so bi. 584. an. 585. lith. 587. 

>er {for \€). 588. lith. 589. brith. 593. lith. 

595. wat; read quath, as in\. 606. 596. lith; vre. 597. Sir 

(for Ris) ; and loke (pm. and) ; wat. 598. lith ; supply here. 


' For maw shal god wille haue ' — 600 

Vnkeueledew him, and swij>e unbouwdew, 

And sone anon [upon] him fuwden, 

Als he tiruedew of his serk, 

On his riht shuldre a kyne-merk; 

A swij>e briht, a swij^e fair : 605 

' Goddot ! ' quath Grim, ' f>is ure eir 

pat shal [ben] louerd of Denemark, 

He shal bew king, strong and stark ; 

He shal hauew iw his hand 

Al Denemark and Engeland; 610 

He shal do Godard ful wo, 

He shal him hangen, or quik flo; 

Or he shal him al quic graue, 

Of him shal he no m^rci haue/ 

pus seide Grim, and sore gret, 615 

And sone fel him to £>e fet, 

And seide, 'Louerd, haue merci 

Of me, and Leue, J?at is me bi ! 

Louerd, we aren bof>e J>ine, 

pine cherles, Ipine hine. 620 

Lowerd, we sholew pe wel fede, 

Til Jmt Ipu conne ridew on stede, 

Til J?at J>u conne ful wel bere 

Helm on heued, sheld and sp^re. 

He ne shal neuere, sikerlike, 625 

Godard, wite, J>at fule swike. 

poru of>er maw, louerd, thaw f»oru J>e 

Shal i neuere fremaw be. 

602. Supply upon. 604. rith. 605. brith. 606. ]?is = 

>is is (read ur-e). 607. Supply ben. 610. A (for Al). 

622, 623. cone. 625, 626. neuere wite; but wite belongs to 1. 626, 

where I insert it, 628. Sal. 


pou shalt me, louerd, fre [man] make?z, 

For i shal yemew pe, and wake#; 630 

pom pe wile i [mi] fredom haue.' 

po was Haueloc a blipe knaue ; [Fol. 207 b, col. 1.] 

He sat him up, and crauede bred; 

And seide, ' ich am [wel] ney ded, 

Hwat for hunger, hwat for bondes 635 

pat pu leidest on min hondes; 

And for [pe] keuel at pe laste, 

pat in mi mouth was Jurist [so] faste. . 

Y was per-with so harde prangled, 

pat i was per-with ney strangled' 640 

1 Wel is me pat pu maght ete : 

Goddot!' quath Leue, ( y shal pe fete 

Bred and chese, butere and milk, 

Pastees and flaunes ; al with suilk 

Shole we sone pe wel fede, 645 

Louerd, in J?is mikel nede ; 

Soth is, pat men seyth and suereth: 

" per God wile, helper, nouht ne dereth." ' 

PAil^NE sho hauede brouht pe mete, 
Haueloc anon bigaw to ete 650 

Grundlike, and was ful blipe; 
Coupe he nouht his hunger mipe. 
A lof he et, y wot, and more, 
For him hungrede swipe sore, 
pre dayes per-biforn, i wene, 655 

629. Supply man. 631. Supply mi. 634. Supply wel. 

635. wat. " 637. Supply pe. 638. Supply so. 639. >e 

{for ]?^e = ]?er). 640. pe {for Ipere = per). 641. mayth hete. 

642. Goddoth. 643. an {for 1st and). 647. it is (om. it) ; 

seyt. 648. nouth. 649. brouth. 652. nouth; Mipe. 

653. het; woth. 



4 i0^ef5grfinij#m^tt««r 


From MS. Laud Misc. 108 ; fol. 20% back 


Et he no mete, pat was wel sene. 

Hwan he hauede eten, and was fed, 

Grim dede make# a ml fayr bed ; 

Vnclopede him, and dede him per-i/me, 

And seyde, ' Slep, sone, with michel mnne ! 660 

Slep wel faste, and dred pe nouht, 

Fro sorwe to ioie art pu brouht/ 

Sone so it was liht of day, 

Grim it under-tok, pe wey 

To pe wicke trait6ur Godard, 665 

pat was [of] Denemark stiward, 

And seyde, 'Louerd, don ich haue 

pat pou me bede of pe knaue ; 

He is drenched in pe flod, 

Aboute^ his hals an anker god; 670 

He is witer-like ded, 

Eteth he neure more bred ; 

He lip drenched in pe se : — ■ 

Yif me gold [and] oper fe, 

pat y mowe riche be; 6 75 

And with pi chartre make fre; 

For pu ful wel bi-hetet me, [Fol. 207 b, col. 2.] 

parane i laste spak with pe/ 

Godard stod, and lokede on him 

pomh-like, with eyne grim; 680 

And seyde, 'Wiltu [nou] ben erl? 

Go horn swipe, fule drit-cherl; 

Go hepen, and be euere-more 

pral and cherl, als pou er wore. 

661. nouth. 662. brouth. 663. lith. 666. Supply of 

H ; denemak a {pm. a). 674. Supply and ; cf. 1. 1225. 677. 

bi-hetet = bi-hete it. 678. last. 680. poruth. 681. 
Supply nou. 


Shaltu haue non of>er mede ; 685 

For litel [shal] i do pe lede 

To pe galueSj so God me rede ! 

For f>ou haues don a wicke dede. 

pou maght stonde/z her to longe, 

Bute pbu swipe hef>en gonge/ 690 

/^ RIM thouhte to late f>at he ran 

^"^ Fro f»at tr#yt6ur, J?at wicke man ; 

And J>ouhte, ( hwat shal me to rede ? 

Wite he him [Hues], he wile [us] bepe 

Heye hangen on galwe-tre : 695 

Betere us is of londe to fie, 

And berwen bof>en ure Hues, 

And mine children and mine wiues/ 

Grim solde sone al his corn, 

Shep with wolle, net with horn, 700 

Hors, and swin, [and geet] with berd, 

pe gees, pe he^nes of pe yerd ; 

Al he solde, J>at ouht douhte, 

pat he eure selle mouhte, 

And al he to pe peni drou. 705 

Hise ship he grey^ede wel inow, 

He dede it tere, and ful wel pike, 

pat it ne doutede sond ne krike ; 

per-inne [he] dide a ful god mast, 

Stronge kables, and ful fast, 710 

Ores gode, and ful god seyl; 

685. Shal {read Shaltu). 686. Supply shal; ig (with g expuncted). 

689. Mait (for maght). 690. e]?en. 691. ]?oucte. 692. J?a 

(for 2nd pat). 693. jxmcte wat. 694. onliue; read hues (see 1. 509) 
H; supply us H. 700. wit; neth wit. 701. Supply and 

geet; wit. 703. outh douthe. 704. moncte. 707. an. 

709. Supply 'he. 711. an. 


per-i/me wantede nouht a nayl, 

pat eiwe he sholde ]?er-iwne do : 

Hwan he hauedet greyfed so, 

Hauelok J?e yunge he dede f>er-mne, 715 

Him and his wif, hise sones f>rinne, 

And hise two douhtres, f>at faire wore ; 

And sone dede leyn in an ore, 

And drou him to pe heye se, 

pere he miht alj>er-beste fie. 720 

Fro londe worew he bote a mile, 

Ne were [it] neuere but ane hwile, [Fol. 208, col. 1.] 

pat it ne gan a wind to rise 

Out of £>e north, men calleth ' bise/ 

And drof hem intil Engelond, 725 

pat al was si£>en in his hond, 

His, J>at Hauelok was ]?e name ; 

But or, he hauede michel shame, 

Michel sorwe, and michel tene, 

And [yete] he gat it al bidene ; 730 

Als ye shule7z nou forthward [lere], 

Yf that ye mien J>er-to here. 

TN Humber Grim biga^ to lende, 

In Lindeseye, riht at *pe north ende. 
per sat his ship up-on f>e sond, 735 

But Grim it drou up to pe lond; 
And £ere he made a litel cote 
To him and to hise flote. 

717. doutres. 

722. Supply it. 

731. forthwar; 

735- is- 


Bigaw he pere for to erde, 

A litel hus to maken of erpe, 74° 

So pat he wel pore were 

Of here herboru h^rborwed pere; 

And for pat Grim pat place auhte, 

pe stede of Grim pe name lauhte; 

So pat Grimesbi [it] calle 745 

[He] pat per-of speken alle ; 

And so shulefl men it caller ay, 

Bituene pis and domesday. 

/^ RIM was fishere swipe god, 

^"* And mikel coupe on the flod; 750 

Mani god fish per-i^ne he tok, 

Bope with net, and [ek] with hok. 

He tok pe sturgiun, and pe qual, 

And pe turbut, and lax with-al, 

He tok pe sele, and [ek] pe el; 755 

He spedde ofte swipe wel : 

Keling he tok, and tuzrcberel, 

Hering, and pe makerel, 

pe butte, pe schulle, pe pornbake : 

Gode paniers dede he make, 760 

On til him, and oper prinne 

Til hise sones, to bere^ fish inne, 

Vp o-londe to selle and fonge ; 

Forbar he neyper tun, ne gronge, 

pat he ne to-yede with his ware; 765 

739. erj>e ; read erde (see note). 743. ante. 744. laute. 

745. calleth alle ; read it calle. 746. Supply He ; offe. 747. 

caller it. 752. neth; supply ek. 755. Supply ek; hwel 

(for hel = el = eel). 759. Butte ; J>ornebake (pronounced 

J>orenbak) ; cf, 1. 832. 764. neyfe (!). 


Kam he neu^re hom hand-bare, 

pat he ne brouhte bred and sowel [Fol. 208, coL 2.] 

In his shirte, or in his couel; 

In his poke benes and korn: — 

Hise swink ne hauede he nowht forlorn. 770 

And hwan he tok f>e grete laumprei, 

Ful wel he couj^e pe rihte wei 

To Lincolne, pe gode boru; 

Ofte he yede it }>oru and J^oru, 

Til he hauede [al] wel sold, 775 

And J^er-fore J?e penies told. 

pa^ne he com penne, he were blij>e, 

For hom he brouhte fele sif>e 

Wastels, simenels with pe horn, 

Hise pokes fulle of mele and korn, 780 

Netes flesh, shepes, and swines; 

And hemp to make# of gode lines, 

And stronge ropes to hise netes; 

In pe se he ofte setes. 

PUS-GATE Grim him fayre ledde. 785 

Him and his genge wel he fedde 
Wel twelue winter, of>er more: 
Hauelok was war J>at Gvim swawk sore 
For his mete, and he lay at home: 
Thouhte [he], ' ich am nou no grome; 790 

Ich am wel waxe^, and wel may eten 
More p&n euere Grim may geten. 
Ich ete more, bi God on Hue, 

767. broucte. 770. nowt. 772. we (!) ; rithe. 775. 

wol (read a\). 778. brouthe. 780. an. 784. sewered 

(pm. were?*) : setes = setes. 787. twelf. 789. hom; seel. 822. 

790. Thouthe ; supply he ; grom. 


pan Grim and hise children flue! 

It ne may nouht ben }?us longe, 795 

Goddot! y wile with [hem] gange, 

For to leren sum god to gete ; 

Swinken ich wolde for mi mete. 

It is no shame forto swinken ; 

pe maw £>at may wel eten and dvinken 800 

[par] nouht ne haue but on swiwk long; 

To ligge/z at horn it is ful strong. 

God yelde him, J>er i ne may, 

pat haueth me fed [un]to J?is day 1 

Gladlike i wile "pe paniers bere ; 805 

Ich wot, ne shal it me nouht dere, 

pey per be inne a birj?ene gret 

Al so heui als a net. 

Shal ich neuere lengere dwelle, 

To-morwew shal ich forth pelle/ 810 

/^\N pe morwen, hwaw it was day, 

^-^ He stirt up sone, and nouht ne lay; 

And cast a panier on his bac, [Fol. 208 b, col. 1.] 

With fish giueled als a stac ; 

Also michel he bar him one 815 

So he foure, bi mine mone ! 

Wel he it bar, and solde it wel, 

pe siluer he brouhte horn ilk del; 

[Of] al J?at he J>er-fore tok 

With-held he nouht a fer)?inges nok. 820 

So yede he forth ilke day, 

794, an. 795. nouth. 796. pe ; read hem (or Ipem). 

801. j?at ; read pax H ; nouth. 803. ine (for i ne). 804. 

to; read unto. 806. woth ; nouth. 808. neth. 812. 

nouth. 814. giueled; see note. 816. Cf. 11. 1711, 1972. 

818. brouthe; il. 819. Supply OfH. 820. nouth. 


pat he neuere at home lay. 

So wolde he his mester lere. — 

Bifel it so, a [ful] strong dere 

Bigan to rise of korn of bred, 825 

That Grim ne cou]?e no god red, 

Hu he sholde his meine* fede; 

Of Hauelok hauede he michel drede: 

For he was strong, and wel mouhte ete 

More J^a/me euere mouhte he gete; 830 

Ne he ne mouhte on Ipe se take 

NeyJ>er le^ge, ne £>ornbake, 

Ne non olper fish ]?at douhte 

His meyne fede/z with he mouhte. 

Of Hauelok he hauede kare, 835 

Hwilkgat j?at he mihte fare; 

Of his childre/z was him nouht, 

On Hauelok was al hise ]x>uht, 

And seyde, ' Hauelok, dere sone, 

I wene that we deye mone 840 

For hunger, J^is dere is so strong, 

And ure mete is uten long. 

Betere is £at f»u he/me gonge 

pan Ipu here dwelle longe ; 

He]?en Ipow maght g&ngen to late; 845 

Thou canst ful wel Ipe rihte gate 

To Lincolne, pe gode boru, 

pou hauest it gon ful ofte ]x>ru; 

Of me, ne is me nouht a slo. 

Betere is f»at J>u J>ider go, 850 

824. Supply ful H. 827. Hw. 829. mouthe. 830. 

heuere mouthe. 831, mouthe. 832. Pronounced ]?orenbak ; 

cf. 1. 759. 833. douthe. 834. mouthe. 836. Hwilgat ; 

micthe. 837,838. nouth ; ]x>uth. 842. hure; H. has eten (MS. 

uten). 845. mayt. 846. ricthe. 847. borw. 849. nouth. 


For ]?er is mani god ma# inne, 

per ]x)u maght p\ mete winne. 

But wo is me ! J>ou art so naked, 

Of mi seyl y wolde were makerd 

A cloth, ]?ou mihtest inne gongen, 855 

Sone, no cold f>at J>u ne fonge.' 

T_J E tok pe sheres of pe nayl, [Fol. 208 b, col. 2.] 

And made him a couel of pe sayl, 
And Hauelok dide it sone on; 

Hauede [he] neyj^er hosen ne shon, 860 

Ne none kinnes of>er wede; 
To Linc61ne barfot he yede. 
Hwan he kam per, he was ful wil, 
Ne hauede he no frend to ganger til; 
Two dayes per fastinde he yede, 865 

pat non for his werk wolde him fede; 
pe fridde day he herde calle: 
' Bermen, bermen, hider forth alle ! ' 
[Poure £>at on fote yede] 

Sprongen forth so sparke [of] glede. 870 

Hauelok shof dun[e] nyne or ten 
Riht amideward pe fen, 
And stirte forth to pe kok, 
[per the erles mete he tok] 

pat he bouhte at pe brigge: 875 

pe bermen let he alle ligge, 
And bar pe mete to pe castel, 
And gat him peve a fer^ing wastel. 

852. mayt {cf 1. 1348). 854. ]>e were {I omit J>e). 855. 

mithest. 857. shres (!). 860. Supply he {cf 1. 864). 

861. kines oJ>e («V). 863. >e {for ])ere = pex). 867. herde he 

{cf 1. 887). 869. Supplied from 1. 101. 870. on; read o>i{as in 

1. 91). 872. Rith amidewarde. 874. Supplied. 875. bouthe. 


PET of>er day he kepte ok 
Smpe yerne pe erles kok, 880 

Til J>at he say him on pe brigge, 
And bi him mani fishes ligge. 
pe erles mete hauede he bouht 
Of Cornwaile, and kalde oft: 

' Bermew, bermen, hider swif>e ! ' 885 

Hauelok it herde, and was fill blif>e 
pat he herde 'berme/z' calle; 
Alle he made hem dune falle 
pat in his gate yeden and stode, 
Wei sixtene laddes gode. 890 

Als he lep pe kok [un-]til, 
He shof hem alle upon an hyl ; 
Astirte til him with his rippe, 
And bigan pe fish to kippe. 

He bar up wel a carte-lode 895 

Of segges, laxes, of playces brode, 
Of grete laumprees, and of eles ; 
Sparede he neyf>er tos ne heles 
Til £at he to pe castel cam, 

pat men fro him his birfene nam. 900 

pan men hauedew holpew him doune 
With pe birf>ene of his croune, 
pe kok [bi] stod, and on him low, 
And ]?ouhte him stalworpe ma« ynow, [Fol. 209, col. 1.] 
And seyde, 'Wiltu ben with me? 905 

Gladlike wile ich feden pe ; 
Wel is set pe mete f>u etes, 
And pe hire J>at J>u getes.' 

879. kepte he. 881. bigge (!). 883. herles; bouth. 884. 

cornwalie (for Corenwaile). 888. made he; dun. 901. doun, 

902. croun. 903. Supply bi. 904. jxmte. 905. wit, 



' /^ODDOT!' quoth he, 'leue sire, 

^■^ Bidde ich you non of>er hire; 910 

But yeuej? me inow to ete, 
Fir and water y wile yow fete, 
pe fir blowe, and ful wele make/z; 
Stickes kan ich breken and krake/z, 
And kindlen [ek] ful wel a fyr, 915 

And makera it to brennen shir ; 
Ful wel kan ich cleuew shides, 
Eles to-turuew of here hides; 
Ful wel kan ich dishes swilen, 

And don al f>at ye eu<?re wilen/ 920 

Quoth J>e kok, ' Wile i no more ; 
Go ]5U yunder, and sit J>ore, 
And y shal yeue pe ful fair bred, 
And make pe broys in pe led. 

Sit now doun and et ful yerne : 925 

DaJ>eit hwo pe mete werne!' 

"LJAUELOK sette him dune anon, 

Also stille als a ston, 
Til he hauede ful wel eten; 

po hauede Hauelok fayre geten. 930 

Hwara he hauede eten inow, 
He kazra to Ipe welle, water up-drow, 
And filde per a michel so ; 
Bad he non ageyn him go; 

Bi-twen his hondes he bar it in, 935 

Al him one, to pe kichin. 

909. Soddot. 913. an. 915. Snpply ek. 918. to 

turner {sic). 927. dun. 933. J>e (for )>ere = )>er). 935. 

But bi-twen (pm. But) ; barit. 936. A (for Al). 


Bad he non him water fete, 
Ne fro brigge to bere J?e mete- 
He bar J>e turues, he bar J>e star, 
pe wode fro the brigge he bar; 940 

Al that euere shuldew he nytte, 
Al he drow, and al he kitte; 
Wolde he neu^re haue/z rest, 
More J>a# he were a best. 

Of alle men was he mest meke, 945 

Lauhwinde ay, and blij>e of speke; 
Eu^re he was glad and blif>e, 
His sorwe he couf>e ful wel mij^e. 
It ne was non so litel knaue, [Fol. 209, col. 2.] 

For to leyken, ne forto plawe, 950 

pat he ne wolde with him pleye: 
pe children that ye dew in J>e weie 
Of him he deden al her wille, 
And with him leykeden here fille. 
Him louedew alle, stille and bolde, 955 

Knihtes, children, yunge and olde; 
Alle him louedew J>at him sowen, 
Bof>en heye men and lowe. 
Of him J>e word ful wide sprong, 
Hu he was mikel, hu he was strong, 960 

Hu fayr maw God him hauede maked, 
But-on £>at he was almest naked: 
For he ne hauede nouht to shride, 
But a kouel ful unride, 
pat [was] ful, and swif>e wicke, 965 

937. to fete (pm. to). 938. bigge (!) ; cf. 1. 940. 942. citte. 

949. Perhaps two lines are lost here, 951. wode {for wolde). 

952. yde/z (!). 953. he {for lwe = her). 956. Knictes; holde. 

958. heyemen ; cflh 2431, 2471. 959. ful wide J)e word. 960. 

Hw; mike (!) ; hw. 961. Hw. 963. nouth. 965. Supply was. 


Was it nouht worth a fir-sticke. 

pe cok biga# of him to rewe, 

And bouhte him clones, al spa^newe; 

He bouhte him bof)e hosen and shon, 

And sone dide him dones on. 970 

Hwan he was closed, hosed, and shod. 

Was non so fayr under God, 

pat euere yete in erlpe were, 

Non £>at eu^re moder bere; 

It was neuere man J>at yemede 975 

In kineriche, J>at so wel semede 

King or cayser forto be, 

pan he was shrid, so semede he ; 

For J>a?me he weren alle same;* 

At Linc61ne, at \e garner, 980 

And J>e erles men woren alle ]?ore, 

Was Hauelok bi \e shuldrew more 

pan \e meste ]>aX Ipev kam: 

In armes him nomaw [ne] nam 

pat he doune sone ne caste; 985 

Hauelok stod ouer hem als a mast. 

Als he was heie, al[s] he was long, 

He was bof>e stark and strong; 

In Engelond [was] non hise per 

Of stveugpe J>at euere ka,m him ner. 990 

Als he was strong, so was he softe; 

pey a man him misdede ofte, 

Neuere more he him [misseyde], 

Ne hond on him with yuele leyde. [Fol. 209 b, col. 1.] 

966. nouth. 968. bouthe. 969. bouthe. 971. osed. 

976. kinneriche. 981. al. 982. pan was ; omitpsmH. 

984. Supply ne. 987. al. 987 ends with long ; 988 ends 

with strong (cj. 1. 1063). 989. Supply was. 993. misdede; 

read misseyde E.; see 11. 49, 1688. 


Of bodi was he mayden clene; 995 

Neuere yete in game, ne in grene, 

With hire ne wolde [he] leyke ne lye, 

No more f>an it were a strie. 

In J>at time al Engelond 

perl Godrich hauede in his hond, 1000 

And he gart komew into pe tun 

Mani erl, and mani barun; 

And alle [men] pat Hues were 

In Engelond, panne were ]?ere, 

pat f>ey haueden after sent 1005 

To ben pex at pe parleme/zt. 

With hem com mani cha/rcpioun, 

Mani wiht ladde, blac and brown; 

And fel it so, J?at yunge men, 

Wei aboutew nine or ten, 1010 

Bigunnen peve for to layke : 

pider kome/z stronge and wayke; 

pider komen lesse and more, 

pat in pe borw panne were/z pove; 

Chaumpiouns, and starke laddes, 1015 

Bondeme/z, with here gaddes, 

Als he comen fro pe plow; 

pere was sembling i-now ! 

For it ne was non horse-knaue, 

pouh pei sholden in honde haue, 1020 

pat he ne kam J>ider, pe leyk to se: 

Biforn here fet panne lay a tre, 

And putter with a mikel ston 

996. Read Neuere in gardine (Kolbing). 997. w\\. (pit); read 

With ; for hire read hore (Kolbing) ; supply he. 999. hengelond. 

1003. Supply men. 1004. englond; wer. 1007. chabioun {sic). 

1009. An. 1011. J>e (forlpere). 1012. komen bo)>e ; om. bo]?e. 

1015. Chaunpiouns. 1020. po. 1023. pultew; readputten; cf. 1. 1031. 


pe starke laddes, ful god won. 

pe ston was mikel, and ek gret, 1025 

And al so heui so a net ; 

Grund-stalwurf>e ma« he sholde be 

pat mouhte it lifter to his kne; 

Was per neyper clerc, ne prest, 

pat mihte it liften to his brest: 1030 

perwith putter the chaumpiouns 

pat Ipider corner with pe barouns. 

Hwo-so mihte putten f>ore 

Biforn a-nof>er, an inch or more, 

Wore he yung, [or] wore he old, 1035 

He was for a kempe told. 

Al-so pel stoden, and ofte starede#, 

pe chaumpiouns, and ek the ladder, 

And he maden mikel strout [Pol. 209 b, col. 2.] 

Abouten pe alf»erbeste bout, 1040 

Hauelok stod, and lokede ]?er-til; 

And of putti/zgge he was ful wil, 

For neu^re yete ne saw he or 

Putter the stone, or panne J>or. 

Hise mayster bad him gon Jer-to, 1045 

Als he couJ?e J>er-with do. 

po hise mayster it him bad, 

He was of him [ful] sore adrad; 

perto he stirte sone anon, 

And kipte up f>at heui ston, 1050 

pat he sholde putten mpe; 

He putte, at pe flrste sif>e, 

1025. greth. 1026. neth. 1027. -wr]?e. 1028. mouthe 

lifted it. 1030. mithe liften it. 1031. perwit ; chaunpiouns. 

1033. mithe. 1035. Supply or ; hold. 1037. pe (for pel) ; an; 

for stareden read gradden (K.). 1038. chaunpiouns. 1040. but. 
1048. Supply ful H. 1 05 1. puten. 


Ouer alle pat per wore, 

Twelue fote, and sumdel more. 

pe chaumpiouns pat [pat] put sowen, 1055 

Shuldrede?* he ilc oper, and lowen; 

Wolde/z he no more to putting gange, 

But seyde, 'we dweller her to longeT 

pis selkouth mihte nouht ben hyd, 

Ful sone it was ful loude kid 1060 

Of Hauelok, hu he warp pe ston 

Ouer pe laddes euerilkon ; 

Hu he was fayr, hu he was long, 

Hu he was wiht, hu he was strong; 

porhut England yede pe speke, 1065 

Hu he was strong, and ek [ful] meke; 

In the castel, up in Ipe halle, 

pe knihtes speke;* per-of alle, 

So that Godrich it herde wel 

per speke?* of Hauelok, eueri del, 1070 

Hu he was strong man and hey, 

Hu he was strong, and ek [ful sley], 

And pouhte Godrich, 'poru pis knaue 

Shal ich Engelond al haue, 

And mi sone after me ; 1075 

For so i wile pat it be. 

King Apelwald me dide swere 

Vpon al pe messe-gere, 

pat y shulde his douhter yeue 

1054. Twel. 1055. chaunpiouns; supply }>at. 1058. we 

(pe). 1059. mithe nouth. 1061. hw. 1063. Hw; hw. 

1064. Hw; with hw. 1065. poruth; speche; read speke, as in 

1. 946. 1066. Hw ; supply ful. 1068. knithes. 1070. pe {for 
J?<?re = }>er). 1071. Hw. 1072. Hw ; for strong read fayr H. ; 

ek fri (!) ; read da ful sley; see 1. 1084. 1073. >outhte. 1077. 

The king (.om. The). 1079. shude; douthe. 


pe hexte [man] pat mihte Hue, 1080 

pe beste, pe fairest, pe strangest ok; 

pat gart he me swerew on pe bok. 

Hwere mihte i finden ani so hey 

So Hauelok is, or so sley ? [Fol. 210, col. 1.] 

pouh y souhte hepen in-to Ynde, 1085 

So fayr, so strong, ne mihte y finde. 

Hauelok is pat ilke knaue 

pat shal Goldeborw haue/ 

pis Jxnihte [he] with trechery, 

With tr#ysoun, and with felony; 1090 

For he wende, pat Hauelok wore 

Sum cherles sone, and no more ; 

Ne shulde he hauew of Engellond 

Onlepi forw in his hond 

With hire, pat was per-of [pe] eyr, 1095 

pat bope was god and swipe fair. 

He wende, pat Hauelok wer a pral, 

per-poru he wende haue/z al 

In Engelond, pat hire riht was; 

He werse was pan Sathanas 1100 

pat lesu Crist in erpe shop : 

Hanged worpe he on an hok! 

A FTER Goldeborw sone he sende, 
*^ pat was bope fayr and hende, 
And dide hire to Linc61ne bringe, 1105 

Belles dede he ageyn hire ringen, 
And ioie he made hire swipe mikel, 
But nepeles he was ful swikel. 

1080. Supply man ; see 1. 199 (H.) ; mithe. 1083. mithe. 

1085. f>ou; southe. 1086. mithe. 1089. fouthe; supply he. 

1090. wit. 1095. Supply J?e. 1099. rith. 1100. was werse; 

see 1. 1 1 34. 11 03. goldebow. 


He seyde, pat he sholde hire yeue 

pe fayrest ma# that mihte liue. 11 10 

She answerede, and seyde anon, 

Bi [Imi] Crist, and bi seint Iohan, 

pat hire sholde noma# wedde, 

Ne noma/* bringen hire to bedde, 

But he were king, or kinges eyr, 11 15 

Were he neuere ma/z so fayr. 

/^ODRICH pe erl was swipe wroth 

^-* pat she swor [per] swilk an oth, 

And seyde, ' Hweper pou wilt be 

Quen and leuedi ouer me? 11 20 

pou shalt haue/z a gadeling, 

Ne shalt pou hauerc non oper king; 

pe shal spusen mi cokes knaue, 

Shalt pou non oper lou^rd haue. 

Dapeit pat pe oper yeue 11 25 

Eu^re-more hwil i liue! 

Tp-morwe shole# ye ben weddet, 

And, maugre pin, to-gidere beddet.' 

Goldeborw gret, and z#as hire ille, [Fol. 210, col. 2.] 

She wolde ben ded bi hire wille. 11 30 

On the morwen, hwa« day was sprungen, 

And day-belle at [pe] kirke rungen, 

After Hauelok sente pat Iudas, 

pat werse was pa?me Sathanas : 

And seyde, 'Mayster, wiltu wif?' 1135 

'Nay/ quoth Hauelok, 'bi my lif! 

1110. mithe. 1112. Supply lesu; cf.\. 1101. 1114. to 

hire ; read hire to H. 1 1 18. / supply per. 1 1 19. hwor ; 

read hwe]?er; cf. 11. 292, 294. 11 24. Ne shalt; omit Ne. 

1 127. To mowe ye sholew ; weddeth. 11 28. beddeth. 11 29. 

was (pas). 1132. Supply ]>e; as in 1. 1355. I]C 35' wilte. 


Hwat sholde ich with wiue do ? 

I ne may hire fede, ne clof>e, ne sho. 

Hwider sholde ich wimmaw bringe? 

I ne haue none kinnes Jringe. 1140 

I ne haue hus, y ne haue cote, 

I ne haue stikke, y ne haue sprote, 

I ne haue ney^er bred ne sowel, 

Ne cloth, but of an old whit couel. 

pis clones, J>at ich onne haue, 1145 

Aren f>e kokes, and ich his knaue/ 

Godrich stirt up, and on him dorig 

[With dintes swij>e hard and strong,] 

And seyde, ' But J>ou hire take 

pat y wole yeuen pe to make, 1150 

I shal hanger J?e ful heye, 

Or y shal Jristen ut J>in eie.' 

Hauelok was one, and was adrad, 

And grauntede him al J>at he bad. 

po sende he after hire sone, 1155 

pe fayrest wymmaw under mone; 

And seyde til hire, [fals] and slike, 

pat wicke J>ral, J>at foule swike : 

'But f>u Ipis maw [wel] under-stonde, 

I shal fleme# \>e of londe ; 11 60 

Or J>ou shalt to }?e galwes re#ne, 

And f>er J>ou shalt in a. fir bre»ne/ 

Sho was adrad, for he so )?rette, 

And durste nouht pe spuskg lette; 

But pty hire likede swif>e ille, 1165 

1 1 37. wif. H39- Wider. 1140. kines. 1141. hws. 

1 142. Nei; omit Ne (H.). U44- hold with. 1148. Supplied. 

11^2. vth; heie. 1153. odrat ; seeW.. 1048, 1163. JI 57' 

Supply fals. 1159. Supply wel H. 1161. shal. 1164. nouth. 


[Sho] f>ouhte, it was Godes wille : 

God, ]?at makes grower pe korn, 

Formede hire vtimman to be born. 

Hwan he hauede him don, for drede, 

pat he sholde hire spuse# and fede, 11 70 

And J>at she sholde til him holde, 

per were/z penies Jricke tolde, 

Mikel plenty upon pe bok : 

He ys hire yaf, and she [is] tok. 

He weren spused fayre and wel, [Pol. 210 b, col. 1.] 

pe messe he dede, [and] eueridel 1176 

pat fel to spusing, a god clerk, 

pe erchebishop ut of Yerk, 

pat kam [J>er] to pe iparlement, 

Als God him hauede f>ider sent. 1180 

LjrWAN he weren togydere in Godes Iawe 

pat pe folc ful wel it sawe, 
He ne wistew hwat he mouhte/z, 
Ne he ne wistew hwat hem douhte, 
per to dweller, or penne to gonge. n 85 

per ne woldew he dweller lozzge ; 
For he wistea, and ful wel sawe, 
Godrich hem hatede, pe deuel him awe ! 
And yf he dwellede^ f>er ouht — 
pat fel Hauelok ful wel on pouht — 1190 

Men sholde don his leman shame, 
Or elles bringew in wicke blame; 

1166. Supply Sho; J>outhe. 1167. to growen; om. to. 1169. don 
him. 1 1 74. as ; read is H. 11 76. deden ; read dede, and stipply 

and H. 11 77. and; read a Z; clek (!). 11 78. nth. 11 79. Supply 
J>er. 1183. mouthen. 1184, wat ; douthe. 1188. J>at 

godrich ; / omit pat ; hawe. 1 1 89. outh. 1 190. J>outh. 


pat were him leuere to ben ded. 

For-J>i he token anof>er red, 

pat J>ei sholden ferine fle 1195 

Til Grim, and til hise sones J>re ; 

per we^den he alf>er-beste spede, 

Hem forto cloj^e, and for to fede. 

pe lond he token under fote, 

Ne wisten he non of>er bote, 1200 

And helden ay the rihte [sti] 

Til he komen to Grimesby. 

pawne he komen J>ere, J>a/me was Grim ded, 

Of him ne hauedew he no red; 

But hise children alle fyue 1205 

Alle weren yet on Hue ; 

pat ful fayre ayeyn hem neme, 

Hwan he wisten J)at he kerne, 

And made/z ioie swilpe mikel, 

Ne weren he neuere ayeyn hem fikel. 12 10 

On knes ful fayre he hem setten, 

And Hauelok swi]?e fayre grette#, 

And seyderc, ' Welkome, louerd dere! 

And welkome be \>\ fayre fere! 

Blessed be f>at ilke J>rawe 12 15 

pat J>ou hire toke in Godes lawe ! 

Wei is us we sen Ipe on lyue, 

pou maght us bo£e selle and yeue; 

pou maght us boJ>e yeue and selle, 

With-fat J>ou wilt here dwelle. [Pol. 210 b, col. 2.] 

We haue^, louerd, alle gode, 122 1 

Hors, and net, and ship on flode, 

1197. best to spede ; read beste spede. 1201. ri>e ( = rithe = 

rihte); sti erased {but see 1. 2618). 1207, 1210. ayen. 1217. 

bus. 1 218. mithe. 12 19. mayt. 1222. neth. 


Gold, and siluer, and michel auhte, 

pat Grim ure fader us bitawhte. 

Gold, and siluer, and of>er fe 1225 

Bad he us bi-taken pe. 

We hauen shep, we hauen swin, 

Bi-leue her, louerd, and al be f>in! 

pou shalt ben louerd, J>ou shalt ben syre, 

And we sholen semen pe and hire; 1230 

And ure sistres sholen do 

Al that euere biddes sho ; 

He sholen hire clones washes and mingen, 

And to hondes water bringen; 

He sholen bedded hire and pe, 1235 

For leuedi wile we J>at she be/ 

Hwan he Jris ioie hauedew maked, 

Sithen stikes broken and kraked, 

And pe fir brouht on bre/me, 

Ne was J>er spared gos ne he«ne, 1240 

Ne pe ende, ne pe drake, 

Mete he deden plente* make; 

Ne wantede Ipeie no god mete, 

Wyn and ale deden he fete, 

And maden hem [ful] glade and blij>e, 1245 

Wesseyl he ledden fele sif>e. 

/^NN pe niht, als Goldeborw lay, 

^^^ Sory and sorwful was she ay, 

For she wende she were bi-swike, 

pat she were yeuen un-kyndelike. 1250 

1223. auchte. 1224. bitawchte. 1229. po. 1231. hure. 

1233. c\o]>en; read clones, as in 1. 2458. 1239. brouth. 1241. 

hende. 1245. made; supply ful. 1246. leddew he. 1247. nith. 
1250. shere, evidently miswritten for she were. 


O niht saw she J>er-inne a liht, 

A swif>e fayr, a swij>e bryht, 

Al so briht, al so shir 

So it were a blase of fir. 

She lokede nor]?, and ek south, 1255 

And saw it corner ut of his mouth, 

pat lay bi hire in Ipe bed : 

No ferlike J>ouh she were adred ! 

pouhte she, ' Hwat may this bi-mene ! 

He beth heymaw yet, als y wene, 1260 

He beth heymaw er he be ded:' — 

On hise shuldre, of gold red 

She saw a swif>e noble croiz, 

Of an angel she herde a uoyz: 

'/^OLDEBORW, lat pi sorwe be; [Fol. 211, col. 1.] 
^"* For Hauelok, f>at haue]? spuset j?e, 1266 

[Is] kinges sone and kiwges eyr; 
pat bikewneth ]?at croiz so fayr. 
It bikenneth more J>at he shal 

Denemark haue^, and Englond al; 1270 

He shal ben king, strong and stark, 
Of Engelond and Denemark; 
pat shalt }>u with pin eyne sen, 
And J>ou shalt quen and leuedi ben!' 

PANNE she hauede herd the steuene 1275 

Of pe angel ut of heuene, 
She was so fele sij>es blithe 

1251. nith; lith. 1252. bryth. 1253. brith. 1255. no]?. 

1258. J)ou i 2 59- pouthe ; .wat. 1267. H e "> read Is. 

1273. shal; wit. I2 74» J>o* 1276. uth. 


pat she ne mihte hire ioie mythe; 

But Hauelok sone anon she kiste, 

And he slep, and nouht ne wiste 1280 

Hwat J>at aungel hauede seyd. 

Of his slep a-non he brayd, 

And seide, ' Le^maw, slepes J?ou ? 

A selkuth drem me dremede nou. 

LJERKNE nou hwat me haueth met: 1285 

Me J>ouhte y was in Denemark set, 
But on on pe moste hil 
pat eu^re yete kam i til. 
It was so hey, J>at y wel mouhte 
Al pe werd se, als me J^ouhte. 1290 

Als i sat up-on J>at lowe, 
I gan Denemark for to awe, 
pe borwes and pe castles stronge; 
And mine armes weren so lo;zge, 
That i fadmede, al at ones, 1295 

Denemark, with mine \onge bones; 
And panne y wolde mine armes drawe 
Til me, and []?ouhte hem] for to [awe], 
Al that euere in Denemark liueden 
On mine armes faste clyueden; 1300 

And pe stronge castles alle 
On knes bigunnew for to falle, 
pe keyes feller at mine fet : — 
AnoJ>er drem me dremede ek, 
pat ich fley ouer pe salte se 1305 

1278. mithe. 1280. nouth. 1281. Hwan (!). 1284. 

dremede me. 1286. J?outhe. 1289. mouthe. 1290. J)outhe. 

1292. bigan ; read gan H. 1298. Supply J?ouhte H. ; horn {read 

hem H.) ; haue (read awe), as in 1. 1292 (Hupe). 1304. dremede me. 


Til Engeland, and al with me 

pat euere was in Denemark lyues, 

But bo«deme# and here wiues; 

And J>at ich kom til Engelond, 

Al closede it \ni\\ min hond, [Fol. 211, col. 2.] 1310 

And, Goldeborw, y gaf [it] J>e: — 

Deus ! legman, hwat may J>is be ? ' 

Sho answerede, and seyde sone : 

' lesu Crist, J>at made mone, 

pine dremes tume to ioye, .... 13 15 

pat wite J>w that sittes in trone! 

Ne non [so] strong kkg, ne caysere 

So J>ou shalt be, for Ipou shalt bere 

In Engelond corune yet; 

Denemark shal knele to J>i fet ; 1320 

Alle f>e castles £at aren J>er-inne 

Shal-tow, legman, ful wel winne. 

I wot, so wel so ich it sowe, 

To J>e shole come« heye and lowe, 

And alle ]?at in Denemark wone, 1325 

Em and broker, fader and sone, 

Erl and baroun, dreng and £ayn, 

Knihtes, and burgees, and sweyn, 

And [make Ipe] king heyelike and wel; 

Denemark shal be f>in euere-ilc del. 1330 

Haue f>ou nouht J>er-of [no] doute 

Nouht Ipe worth of one noute ; 

per-of with-i;me J>e firste yer 

1311. Supply it. 1315,1316. Two lines perhaps lost ; to make sense, 
alter 1. 1316 to And leue, t>at ]?ou sitte in trone ! 131 7. Supply so. 

1318. fo (!). 1323. woth. 1327. an kayn {sic) ; kayn = cayn, 

for tayn = thayn. 1328. Knithes. J 3 2 9« mad; read make, 

and supply \t. 1331. nouth; offe; supply no; douthe. *33 3 « 

Nouth; nouthe. *333. offe. 


Shalt pou ben king, [with-outen were]. 

But do nou als y wile rathe; 1335 

Nimen wit to Denemark bape, 

And do pou nouht on frest pis fare ; 

" Lith and selthe felawes are." 

For sha 1 ich neuere blij?e be 

Til i with eyen Denemark se; 1340 

For ich wot, pat al pe lond 

Shalt pou haue# in pin hond. 

Prey Grimes sones, alle pre, 

That he wenden for]? with pe; 

I wot, he wilen pe nouht werne, 1345 

With pe wende shule^ he yerne, 

For he loue/z pe herte-like, 

pou maght telle he aren quike, 

Hwore-so he o worde aren ; 

Here ship pou do hem swithe yare#, 1350 

And loke pat pou dwelle nouht : 

" Dwelling haueth ofte scape wrouht." ' 

TLJ WAN Hauelok herde pat she radde, 

Sone it was day, sone he him cladde, 
And sone to pe kirke yede [Fol. 211 b, col. 1.] 1355 
Or he dide ani oper dede, 
Bifor pe rode biga/z [to] falle, 
Croiz and Crist bi[gan] to kalle, 
And seyde, 'Louerd, pat al weldes, 
Wind and water, wodes and feldes, 1360 

1334. king of euere-il del {repeated from 1. 1330); read with-outen 
were (without doubt). 1336. Nim in witl J)e; read Nimen wit 

(let us two go) ; denemak. 1337. nouth. I 34*- woth. 

1342. hon. 1345- nouth. 1348. til; read telle. 1350- pere; 

read Here. 1351. dweller nouth. 1352. wrouth. 1357. 

And bifor ; om. And ; supply to. 1358. bi {for bi-gan). 


For the holi milce of you, 

Haue merci of me, louerd, nou ! 

And wre^e me yet on mi fo 

pat ich saw biforn min eyne slo 

Mine sistres, with a knif, i3 6 5 

And sij?en wolde me mi lyf 

Haue reft, for in the se 

Bad he Grim haue drenched me. 

He [haldes] mi lond with mikel un-riht, 

With michel wro/zg, with mikel pliht; 1370 

For i ne misdede him neu^re nouht, 

And haueth me to sorwe brouht. 

He haueth me do mi mete J>igge, 

And ofte in sorwe and pine ligge. 

Louerd, haue m^rci of me, 1375 

And late [me] passe wel Ipe se — 

[pouh] ich haue ther-of doute and kare — 

With-uten stormes ouer-fare, 

pat y ne drenched [be] J>er-ine, 

Ne forfaren for no sinne. 1380 

And bringge me wel to J?e lond 

pat Godard haldes in his hond; 

pat is mi riht, eueri del : 

lesu. Crist, £ou wost it wel ! ' 

PAiVNE he hauede his bede seyd, 1385 

His offrende on f>e auter leyd, 
His leue at I^u Crist he tok, 

1364. Perhaps omit pat, 1369. Supply haldes ; vn-Rith. 

1370. plith. I 37 I * \ne (perhaps omit ne). I37 2 - haued(!); 

brouth. 1373- to figge {omit to). 1376. Supply me; wel 

passe. 1377. J>atihc; read pouh ich; ofife douthe. 1379. 

Supply be. 1383. Rith. 


And at his suete moder ok, 

And at pe croiz, ]?at he bi lay, 

Sipen yede sore grotinde awey, 1390 

LJ WAA^ he com horn, he wore yare, 

Grimes sones, forto fare 
In-to pe se, fishes to gete, 
pat Hauelok mihte wel of ete. 

But Hauelok J^ouhte al anoj^er, 1395 

First he kalde pe eldeste broker, 
Roberd pe Rede, bi his name, 
William Wendut, and H[uwe R]aue», 
Grimes sones alle pre, 

And seyde, ' Ltyes nou to me ; [Fol. 211 b, col. 2.] 1400 
Lou^rdinges, ich wile you showe 
A J>ing of me pdl ye wel knowe. 
Mi fader was king of Denshe lond, 
Denemark was al in his hond 

pe day p%X he was quik and ded; 1405 

But p&nne hauede he wicke red, 
pat he me, and Denemark al, 
And mine sistres bi-tawhte a f>ral: 
A deueles lime [he] us bitawhte, 
And al his lond, and al hise auhte. 1410 

For y saw that fule fend 
Slo mine sistres with hise hend; 
First he shar a-two here J^rotes, 

1389. biforn ; read 'bi. I39 1 * In the MS. the capital letter is 

prefixed to the next line. I394« mithe. l 395- auelok ]>outhe. 

1396. kade(!); heldeste. 1398. wenduth; hauew; cf. 11. 1868,2528. 
Only an assonance, not a rime, seems intended. 1400. seye {read 

seyde); nou alle to {omit alle). 1401. sheue. 1402. knewe. 

1408. bi tawte. 1409. Supply he ; hus bitawte. 1410. authe. 

1412. Mine sistres slo. 


And sif>en hem al to grotes, 

And sif>en bad [he] in f>e se 1415 

Grim, youre fader, drenchen me. 

Deplike dede he him swere 

On bok, J>at he me sholde bere 

Vnto f>e se, and drenchen inne, 

And [he] wolde takew on him pe sinne. 1:420 

But Grim was wis, and swtye hende, 

Wolde he nouht his soule shende ; 

Leuere was him be for-sworen 

pan drerachen me, and ben for-loren ; 

But sone bigaw he forto fle 1425 

Fro Denemark, forto bevwen me. 

For yif ich hauede J?er ben fu^den, 

Hauede [he] ben slayn, or harde bunder, 

And heye ben henged on a tre, 

Hauede gon for him gold ne fe. 1430 

For-J?i fro Denemark hider he fledde, 

And me ful fayre and ful wel fedde, 

So J>at vn-to ]?is [ilke] day 

Haue ich ben fed and fostred ay. 

But nou ich am up to }?at elde T435 

Cumew, that ich may wepne welde, 

And y may grete dmtes yeue, 

Shal i neuere, hwil ich lyue, 

Ben glad, til that ich Denemark se; / 

I preie you )?at ye wende with me, 1440 

And ich may mak you riche men; 

1415. Supply he. 1418. sholde me. T 4 T 9' an; ine. 

1420. Supply he. 1422. nouth. J 4 2 3- to be {omit to). 

1424. lorn. 1426. MS. berpen {the A. S. w being used here); cf. 

I.697. 1427. yif {with longs). 1428. Supply he. 1430. 

go; read gon. !433« Supply ilke. x 435« helde. 


Ilk of you shal haue castles ten, 
And pe lond £>at ]?or-til longes, 
Borwes, tunes, wodes and wonges' 

[A leaf has here been cut out of the MS., containing 180 lines. The 
missing portion must have been to this effect. ' To this they gladly 
assented ; and Havelok, accompanied by his wife Goldeborw and the 
sons of Grim, set sail for Denmark. Disembarking, they travel till they 
reach the castle of a great Danish earl, named Ubbe, who had formerly 
been a close friend to king Birkabeyn. Havelok begs that he will allow 
him to live in that part of the country, and to gain a livelihood by 

' With swilk als ich byen shal : [Fol. 212, col. 1.] 1625 

per-of bi-seche [ich] you nou leue; 

Wile ich speke with non oJ?er reue, 

But with [you], f>at iustise are, 

pat y mihte [seller] mi ware 

In gode borwes up and doun, 1630 

And faren ich wile fro tun to tun/ 

A gold ring drow he forth anon, 

An hundred pu/zd was worth pt ston, 

And yaf it Ubbe for to spede : — 

'He was ful wis J>at first yaf mede ; ' 1635 

And so was Hauelok ful wis here, 

He solde his gold ring ful dere : 

Was neuere non so dere sold 

[Fro] chapmen, neyf>er yung ne old : 

pat slides ye forth ward ful wel [lerefl,] 1640 

Yif J>at ye wile pe storie heren. 

L_JWAiV Ubbe hauede pe gold ring, 
Hauede he youenet for no Jring, 

1626. Supply ich. 1628. ]>e; readyouYL. 1629. mithe seken 
{but read seller). 1639 For ; read Fro H. 1640. shores {read 

shole#) ; here« (read \eren, as in 1. 12 where it rinies with heren H.). 


Nouht for pe borw euere-ilk del : — 

Hauelok bi-held he swi)?e wel, 1645 

Hu he was wel of bones maked, 

Brod in pe sholdres, ful wel schaped, 

picke in pe brest, of bodi long ; 

He semede wel to ben wel strong. 

' Deus ! ' quath Ubbe, ' qui ne were he kniht ? 1650 

I wot, ]?at he is sw'ipe wiht 1 

Betere semede him to bere 

Helm on heued, sheld and sp^re, 

paraie to beye and selle ware. 

Alias ! J>at he shal J>er-with farel 1655 

Goddot ! wile he trowe me, 

ChafFare shal he late be/ 

Nepeles he seyde sone : 

' Hauelok, haue [fou] pi bone, 

And y ful wel rede pe 1660 

pat pou come, and ete with me 

To-day, f>ou, and £>i fayre wif, 

pat J>ou louest also f>i lif. 

And haue Jx>u of hire no drede, 

Shal hire no man shame bede. 1665 

Bi pe fey y owe to pe, 

perof shal i [mi-self] borw be.' 

LJAUELOK herde >at he bad, 

[Al]-thowh was he ful sore [a]drad 
With him to ete, for hise wif; [Pol. 212, col. 2.] 1670 
For him wore leuere }>at his lif 

1644. Nouth ; il. 1645. bi hel. 1646. Hw. 1650. 

hwat (read quarto); knith. 1651. woth ; with. 1659. Supply 

]>ou. 1660. }>(forpe). 1666. fey that y; omit that. 1667. 

me serf; read mi-self. 1669. And thow ; drad. 


Him wore reft, pan she in blame 

Felle, or lauhte ani shame. 

HwaTzne [pat] he his wille quath, 

pe stede, pat he onne sat, 1675 

Smot Ubbe [po] with spures faste, 

And forth awey, but at pe laste, 

Or he [ferre] fro him ferde, 

Seyde he, pat his folk [it] herde: 

'Loke fat ye corner bepe, 1680 

For ich it wile, and ich it rede.' 

OAUELOK ne durste, pey he were adrad, 

Nouht with-sittew pat Ubbe bad; 
His wif he dide with him lede, 

Vn-to pe heye curt he yede. 1685 

Roberd hire ledde, pat was red, 
pat hauede [poled] for hire pe ded 
Or ani hauede hire misseyd, 
Or hand with iuele onne leyd. 

William Wendut was pat oper 1690 

pat hire ledde, Roberdes broper, 
pat was wiht at alle nedes : 
' Wei is him pat god maw fedes ! ' 
pan he were# corner to pe halle, 
Biforen Ubbe, and hise mm alle, 1695 

Vbbe stirte hem ageyn, 
And mani a kniht, and mani a sweyn, 
Hem for to se, and forto shewe; 
po stod Hauelok als a lowe 

1673. lauthe. 1674. Supply })at; he hauede his wille «/at (pat); 

om. hauede, and write quath for wvX {as in 1. 595). 1676. Supply ]>o. 
1678. Stipplyfene, i e. iarther. 1679. Supply it H. 1682. |>e; adrad 
{seel. 1669). 1683. Nouth. 1685. yde (!). 1687. haue ; >arned (cf, 
2492); readlpolzd. 1690. Willam. 1692. with. 1697. knith. 


Aboven [po] J>at Iper-inne wore, 1700 

Riht al bi Ipe heued more 

parane ani J>at J>er-inne stod : 

po was Ubbe blij?e of mod, 

pat he saw him so fayr and he/zde ; 

Fro him ne mihte his herte we«de, 1705 

Ne fro him, ne fro his wif; 

He louede hem sone so his lif. 

Weven non in Denemark, ]?at him f>ouhte, 

pat he so mikel loue mouhte ; 

More he louede Hauelok one 1710 

pan al Denemark, bi mine wone! 

Loke nou, hu God helpen kan 

O mani wise wif and man. 

TJWAN it was corner time to ete, 

Hise wif dede Ubbe sone in fete, 17 15 

[Fol. 212 b, col. 1.] 
And til hire seyde, al on game/* : 
' Dame, Ipou and Hauelok shulera ete sainew, 
And Goldeboru shal ete with me, 
pat is so fayr so flour on tre ; 

In al Denemark is wimma# [non] 1720 

So fayr so sche, bi seint Iohan ! ' 
parcne [he] were set, and bord leyd, 
And £e beneysun was seyd, 
Biforn hem com ]?e beste mete 

pat king or cayser wolde ete ; 1725 

Kranes, swarcnes, ueneysun, 
Lax, lampreys, and god sturgiun, 

1700. Supply ]x>. 1701. Rith. 1705. mithe. 1708. fouthe. 

1709. mouthe. 171 2. hw. 1718. wit. 1720. supply 

non E. 1722. Supply he; bord (pron* borred). 1727. 
sturgun ; see 1. 753. 


Fyment to drinke, and god clare\ 

Win hwit and red, ful god plente\ 

Was ]?er-inne no page so lite 1730 

pat euere wolde ale bite. 

Of pe mete forto telle, 

Ne of pe [win] bidde i nouht dwelle ; 

pat is pe storie for to lenge, 

It wolde anuye J>is fayre genge. 1735 

But hwan he haueden ilk ping deyled, 

And fele sij>e haueden wosseyled, 

With gode drinkes seten longe, 

And it was time for to gonge, 

Ilk man to per he cam fro, 1740 

pouhte Ubbe, ' Yf I late hem go, 

pus one foure, with-uten mo, 

So mote ich brouke finger or to, 

For J?is mmman bes mikel wo ! 

For hire shal men hire louerd slo/ 1745 

He tok sone knihtes ten, 

And wel sixti of>er men, 

With gode bowes, and with gleiues, 

And sende him unto pe greyues, 

pe beste maw of al pe toun, 1750 

pat was named Bernard Brun ; 

And bad him, als he louede his lif, 

Hauelok wel yemen, and his wif. 

And wel do wayten al pe niht, 

Til pe oj^er day, J?at it were liht. 1755 

Bernard was trewe, and swij^e wiht, 

1733. metes (!); read win; nout. 1736. J)e killing (kilfor ilk) ; 

om. }>e; deled {but see 1 2099). 1737. si]?es ; readme H. {see 1. 778). 
1738. And with; om. And. 174°- H- I 74 I « pouthe. 1744. 

mike. J 746. knithes. I 748. Wit. 1753. ymen (!). 

1754. nith. 1755. lith. 1756. with. 


In al f>e borw ne was no kniht 

pat betere coufe on stede riden, 

Helm on heued, ne swerd bi side. 

Hauelok he gladlike under-stod [Fol. 212 b, col. 2.] 1760 

With mikel loue and herte god, 

And dide greyf>e a super riche, 

Also he was no wiht chiche, 

To his bihoue euer-ilk del, 

pat he mihte supe swif>e wel. 1765 

ALSO he seten, and sholde soupe, 
'^^ So comes a ladde in a ioupe, 
And with him sixti of>er stronge, 
With swerdes drawen, and kniues lo«ge, 
Ilkan in hande a ful god gleiue, 1770 

And seyde, 'Undo, Bernard f>e greyue! 
Vndo swife, and lat us in, 
Or J>u art ded, bi seint Austin!' 
Bernard stirt up, £at was ful big, 
And caste a brinie up-on his rig, 1775 

And grop an ax, ]?at was ful god, 
Lep to Ipe dore, so he wore wod, 
And seyde, ' Hwat are ye, ]mt are f>er-oute, 
pat ]^us bigi/men forto stroute? 

Goth henne swif>e, fule feues, 1780 

For, bi £>e Louerd fat maw on leues, 
Shol ich casten J>e dore open, 
Summe of you shal ich drepen ! 
And Ipe ofre shal ich kesten 
In feteres, and ful faste festen!' 1785 

1757. knith. 1761. mike. 1763. with; chinche (see 

N. E.D.). 1765. mithe. 1772. latus. 

1776. ar; read ax (see 1. 1894). 


'Hwat haue ye seid?' quoth a ladde, 

' Wenestu J>at we ben adradde ? 

We sholen at Jris dore gonge 

Maugre J>in, carl, or ouht longe/ 

He griper sone a bulder-ston, 1790 

And let it fieye, ful god won, 

Ageyn pe dore, f>at it to-rof: 

Hauelok it saw, and J>ider drof, 

And pe barre sone vt-drow, 

pat was unride and gret ynow, 1795 

And caste pe dore open wide, 

And seide, 'Her shal y now abide: 

Comes swi)?e vn-to me ! 

Datheyt hwo you he/me fle!' 

'No/ quod on, 'J>at shaltou coupe/ 1800 

And bigan til him to loupe, 

In his hond his swerd ut-drawe, 

Hauelok he wende J>ore haue slawe; 

And with [him] comen o^er two, 

pat him wolde of Hue haue do. [Fol. 213, col. 1.] 

Hauelok lifte up pe dore-tre, 1806 

And at a dint he slow hem pre; 

Was non of hem f>at hise h^rnes 

Ne lay J>er-ute ageyn pe sternes. 

pe fierce J?at he si]?en mette, 1810 

With Ipe barre so he him grette, 

Bifor pe heued, pat pe riht eye 

Vt of pe hole made he fleye, 

And sij>e clapte him on pe crune 

1788. shole. 1789. outh. 1792. Agen. *793- Auelok. 

1798. me datheit; but datheit belongs to 1. 1799 {where it recurs}. 
1800. quodh. 1804. Supply him. 1808. his. 1811. Wit. 

181 2. rith. 


So )?at he stan-ded fel J>or dune. 1815 

pe fifte J>at he ouer-tok 

Gaf he a ful sor dint ok, 

Bitwen pe sholdres, per he stod, 

pat he spende his herte blod. 

pe sixte wende for to fle, 1820 

And he clapte him with pe tre 

Riht in pe fule necke so, 

pat he smot hise necke on to. 

pa/zne pe sixe weren doune feld, 

pe seuen^e brayd ut his swerd, 1825 

And wolde Hauelok riht in the eye; 

And Hauelok le[t )?e] barre fleye, 

And smot him sone ageyn pe brest, 

pat hauede he neuere schrifte of pr^st; 

For he was ded on lesse hwile 1830 

pan men mouhte renne 2. mile. 

Alle pe o]?ere were/? ful kene; 

A red pe\ taken hem bi-twene, 

pat he sholden him bi-halue, 

And brisew so, f»at with no salue 1835 

Ne sholde him helen leche non: 

pey drowen ut swerdes, ful god won, 

And shoten on him, so don on bere 

Dogges, J>at wolden him to-tere, 

pa^ne men doth pe bere beyte: 1840 

pe laddes were kaske and teyte, 

And vm-bi-yeden him ilkon. 

Sum smot with tre, and su/# with ston; 

Suzrcme putter with gleyue in bac and side, 

1819. spen. 1822. Rith. 1824. doun. 1826. Riht. 

1827. le; read let ]>e. 1829. schifte. 1831. mouthe. 1834. 

sholde. 1835. wit. 1842. un bi yeden. 1843, wit. 


And yeuen wundes longe and wide 1845 

In twenti stedes, and wel mo, 

Fro Ipe croune til the to. 

Hwan he saw f>at, he was wod, 

And was it ferlik, hu he stod, 

For the blod ran of his sides [Fol. 213, col. 2.] 

So water f>at fro J>e welle glides; 1851 

But panne bigan he for to mowe 

With the barre, and let hem shewe 

Hu he cowf>e sore smite; 

For was per non, long ne lite, 1855 

pat he mouhte ouer-take, 

pat he ne garte his croune krake ; 

So }?at, on a litel stund, 

Felde he twenti to f>e grund. 

PO bigan gret dine to rise, i860 

For J>e laddes on ilke wise 
Asaylede# him with grete dintes, 
[Ful] fer he stoden, [and] with flintes 
And gleyues schote/z him fro feme, 
For drepen him he wolden yerne ; 1865 

But durstera he newhe/z him no more 
pawne he bor or leu# wore. 

"LJUWE Raue^ f>at dine herde, 

And f>owhte wel, ]?at men mis-ferde 
With his louerd, for his wif; 1870 

And grop an ore, and a long knif, 
And J>ider drof al-so an hert, 

1849. hw « l8 54' Hw * 1856. Monthe. 1862. Him 

asayledew wit. 1863. Fro {read Ful H.) ; him ; read and (see 

1. 1864). 1869. J>owthe. 1 87 1. ore is correct ; seel, 1886. 


And cam J>er on a litel stert, 

And saw how [f>at] pe laddes wode 

Hauelok his louerd umbistode, 1875 

And bete/* on him so doth J>e smith 

With ]?e hamer on J>e stith. 

' ALLASP quath Huwe, '}>at y was bore«! 

pat euere et ich bred of koren ! 
pat ich here J>is sorwe sel 1880 

Roberd ! William ! hware ar ye ? 
Gripeth ey]?er unker a god tre, 
And late we nouht Ipise dogges fie, 
Til lire louerd wreke [be] ; 

Cometh swij>e, and folwes me! 1885 

Ich haue in honde a ful god ore: 
Datheit hwo ne smite sore ! ' 
'Ya! leue, ya!' quod Roberd sone, 
' We haue/z ful god liht of J>e mone/ 
Roberd a staf grop, strong and gret, 1890 

pat mouhte ful wel bere a net, 
And William Wendut grop a tre 
Mikel grettere J>an his J>e, 
And Bernard held his ax ful faste; 
I seye, was he nouht }>e laste ; [Fol. 213 b, col. 1.] 

And lopen forth so he weren wode 1896 

To pe laddes, J>er he stode, 
And yaf hem wundes swif>e grete ; 
per mihte men wel se boyes bete, 

1873. cham. 1874. I supply j?at; H. supplies al. 18780 

hwat hwe; read quath Huwe. 1881. willam. 1882. e}>er; see 

I.2665. 1883. nouth; doges. 1884. Supply be. 1887. wo. 

1889. lith ; perhaps o?nit J)e. 1890. grop a staf. 1 891. mouthe. 

1892. willam. 1893. ]>re {due to tre in 1. 1892). 1895. nouth. 

1899. mi-the. 


And ribbes in here sides breke, 1900 

And Hauelok on hem wel [be] wjeke. 

He broken armes, he broken knes, 

He broken shankes, he broken thes. 

He dide £>e blode £ere re/me dune 

To ]>Q fet riht fro the crune, 1905 

For was f»er spared heued non: 

He leyden on heuedes, ful god won, 

And made croune[s] breke and crake 

Of f>e broune, and of J>e blake; 

He made# here backes al-so bloute 1910 

Als here wombes, and made htm rowte 

Als he weren kradelbarnes : 

So dos ]>e child ]?at moder J>arnes. 

"PvApEIT hwo recke! for he it s^ruede; 

Hwat dide he )x>re? He were// were wed 1 19 15 
So longe hauede^ he but and bet 
With neues under hemes set, 
pat of £>o sixti men and on 
Ne wente awey }?er Hues non. 

/^\N Ipe moiwen, hwan it was day, 1920 

^^ lie on other wirwed lay 

Als it were dogges J>at were;/ hedged; 

And summe leye in dikes slenget, 

And suffzme in gripes bi )>e her 

Drawen ware, and \aXen ther. 1925 

1901. Supply be. 1905. rith. 1908. crotine. 1911. he {for 
here). 1914. we (pe) ; read wo = hwo. I 9 I 5» werew he ; cf, 

1. 1921. I 9 I 7- For hemes read heres (= eres) H. igig. }>er 

awey; read awey per H. 1920. hhan (for hwan = hwan). 


Sket cam tiding in-til Ubbe, 

pat Hauelok hauede with a elubbe 

Of hise slawen sixti and on 

Sergaunz, J>e beste ]?at minted gon. 

1 Deus ! ' quoth Ubbe, ' hwat may ]?is be ? 1930 

Betere is i nime miself and se 

[Hwat] f>is baret [oweth on] wold, 

pa/me i sende yunge or old. 

For yif i sende him un-to, 

I wene men sholde him shame do, 1935 

And ]?at ne wolde ich for no ping: 

I loue him wel, bi heuene king ! 

Me wore leuere i wore lame 

pa/me men dide him ani shame, 

Or tok, or onne handes leyde [Fol. 213 b, col. 2.] 

Vn-ornelike, or shame seyde/ 1941 

He lep up on a stede liht, 

And with him mani a noble kniht, 

And ferde forth un-to pe tun, 

And dide calle Bernard Brun 1945 

Vt of his hus, hwan he per cam ; 

And Bernard sone ageyn [him] nam, 

Al to-tused and al to-torn, 

Ner also naked so he was born, 

And al to-brised, bac and pe : 1950 

Quoth Ubbe, ' Bernard, hwat is £>e? 

Hwo haues pe Ipus ille maked, 

pus to-riue«, and al mad naked?' 

1929. mithe*. 193 1. his inime. J 93 2 . pat J>is baret on 

hwat is wold ; read Hwat )>is baret haueth on wold H. {rather oweth 
on wold ; see note). 1941. Vn ornelfke {with long sfor i) ; same. 

1942. lith. 1943. knith. 1946. wan. 1947. Supply 



' T OUERD, m^rci/ quoth he sone, 

"^ ' To-nicht, also ros J>e mone, 1955 

Corner her mo £an sixti peues, 
With lokene copes and wide sleues, 
Me forto robben and to pine, 
And for to drepe me and mine. 
Mi dore he broken up ful sket, i960 

And wolde me binden hond and fet. 
Hwan Ipe godemew £at sawe, 
Hauelok, and he f>at bi Ipe wowe 
Leye, he stirtezz up sone on-on, 
And swrcme grop tre, and sum grop ston, 1965 

And driue hem ut, ]>e\ he were/z crus, 
So dogges ut of milne-hous. 
Hauelok grop J>e dore-tre, 
And [at] a dint he slow hem thre. 
He is ]>e beste maw at nede 1970 

pat eu^re-mar shal ride [on] stede ! 
Als helpe God, bi mine wone, 
A fousand men is he worth one ! 
Yif he ne were, ich were nou ded, 
So haue ich don mi soule red! 1975 

But it is of him mikel sinne ; 
He made;* him swilke woundes f>ri«ne, 
pat of J>e alj>er-leste wounde 
Were a stede brouht to grunde. 
He haues a wunde in the side, 1980 

With a gleyue, ful un-ride; 
And he haues on J>oru his arum, 
per-of is ful mikel harum; 

1954. Iouerd (with large capital) ; quot. 1962. Wan. 1969. 

Supply at. 1971. Supply on; see 11. 10, 26. 1973. fhousend of; 

read }>ousand, omitting ol {see \. 127); his. 1975. Mi. 1976. bof. 


And he haues on poru bis pe, 

pe vn-rideste pat men may se ; [Fol. 214, col. 1.] 1985 

And opere wundes haues he stro/zge, 

Mo than twenti, swipe longe. 

But sipen he hauede lauht pe sor 

Of pe wundes, was neuere bor 

pat so fauht so he fauht pa/me ; 1990 

Was non pat hauede pe hern-panne 

So hard, pat he ne dede alto-crusshe, 

And alto-shiuere, and alto-frusshe. 

He folwede hem so hund dos hare, 

Dapeyt on he wolde spare, 1995 

pat [he] ne made hem euerilk on 

Ligge stille so doth Ipe ston : 

And per nis he nouht to frie, 

For oper sholde he make hem lye 

Ded, or pei him hauede slawen, 2000 

Or alto-hewen, or alto-drawen. 

T OUERD, ha-ui no more pliht 

pat ich was greyped pus to-niht. 
pas wolde "pe theues me haue reft, 
God pank, he hauenet sure keft. 2005 

But it is of him mikel scape : 
I wot pat he bes ded ful rape/ 

QUOTH Ubbe, < Bernard, seyst pou soth ? • 
' Ya, sire, that i ne lepe oth. 
Yif y, louerd, a word leye, 2010 

1984. J)he. 1986. o]?e (for olpere). 1988. lauth. 1990. 

fauth {twice). 1992. cruhsse. 1996. Supply he. 1998. 

nouth. 2002. plitL 2003. Of fat (pm. Of ) ; Jmsgrefed; nith. 

2005. But god (But from 1. 2006), 2007. woth. 2009. ine. 


To-morwen do me hengen heye/ 

pe burgeys }>at J>er-bi stode IporG 

Grundlike and grete of>es swore, 

Litle and mikle, yunge and olde, 

pat was soth, £at Bernard tolde. 2015 

Soth was, J>at he wolde^ him bynde, 

And trusse al fat he mihten fynde 

Of hise, in arke or in kiste, 

pat he mouhte in seckes friste. 

' Louerd, awey he hauede/z al born 2020 

His ping, and him-self alto-torn, 

But als[o] God self barw him wel, 

pat he ne tinte no catel. 

Hwo mihte so mani sto^de ageyn 

Bi nihter-tale, kniht or swein? 2025 

He weie/z bi tale sixti and ten, 

Starke laddes, stalwor]?i men, 

And on, pe mayster of hem alle, 

pat was pe name Griffin Galle. 

Hwo mouhte ageyw so mani sto^de, [Fol. 214, col. 2.] 

But als pis man of feme londe 2031 

Haueth hem slawezz with a tre ? 

Mikel ioie haue he ! 

God yeue him mikel god to welde, 

Bo£> e in tun, and ek in felde ! 2035 

" Wel is set, he etes mete." ' 

Quoth Ubbe, ' Doth him swife fete, 

pat y mouhte his woundes se, 

Yf that he mounter holed be. 

2014. holde. 2017. mithen. 2019. mouthe. 2020. he 

haueden al awey. 2022. als. 2024. mithe. 2025. nither tale 

knith. 20291. giffin. 2030. mouthe agey (!). 2036. We 

{see 11. 772, 907). 2038. mouthe. 2039. mouthe/z. 

F 2 


For yf he mouhte couere yet, 2040 

And ganger wel up-on hise fet, 

Mi-self shal dubbe;* him to kniht, 

For-])i f>at he is so wiht. 

And yif he liuede, po foule theues, 

pat weren of Kaymes kin and Eues, 2045 

He sholden hange bi pe necke : 

Of here ded dapeit hwo re eke, 

Hwan he yeden f>us on nihtes 

To binde bof>e burgme/z and knihtes. , 

For bynderes loue ich neuere mo, 2050 

Of hem ne yeue ich nouht a slo/ 

UAUELOK was [to] Ubbe browht, 

pat hauede for him ful mikel ]?ouht, 
And mikel sorwe in his herte 
For hise wundes, £at were so smerte. 2055 

15 UT hwa« his wundes weren shewed, 

And a leche hauede knawed 
pat he hem mouhte ful wel hele, 
Wel make him gange, and ful wel mele, 
And wel a palefrey bistride, 2c 60 

And wel up-on a stede ride, 
po let Ubbe ai his care 
And al his sorwe ouer-fare; 
And seyde, 'Cum now forth with me, 
And Goldeboru, J>i wif, with Ipe, 2065 

And J>ine seriaunz alle f>re, 

2040. mouthe. 2042. dubbe (for dubbe) ; knith. 2043. 

with. 2045. kaym. 2047. wo. 2048. nithes. 2049. 

knithes. 2052. bifore ; read to; browth. 2 o53« }>outh. 

2055. we (for were). 2057. knawed (i e. made known; caztsal) ; 

perhaps read knawen. 2058. mouthe. 


For nou wile y youre warant be; 

Wile y []?at] non of here frend 

pat pu slowe with J>in hend 

Mouhte wayte pe [to] slo, 2070 

Also f>ou gange to and fro. 

I shal lene pe a bowr 

pat is up in pe heye tour, 

Til Ipou mowe ful wel go, 

And wel ben hoi of al pi wo. [Fol. 214 b, col. l.] 

It ne shal no J>ing ben bitwene 2076 

pi bour and min, also y wene, 

But a fayr firrene wowe ; — 

Speke y loude, or spek y lowe, 

pou shalt ful wel heren me, 2080 

And f»an pu wilt, J>ou shalt me se. 

A rof shal hile us bof>e o-niht, 

pat none of mine, clerk ne kniht, 

Ne sholen pi wif no shame bede, 

No more )mn min, so God me rede ! ' 2085 

L-IE dide un-to Ipe borw bringe 
Sone anon, al with ioyinge, 
His wif, and [ek] his serganz pre, 
pe beste men J>at mouhte be. 

pe firste niht he lay J>er-inne, 2090 

Hise wif, and [ek] his serganz J?rinne, 
Aboute pQ middel of pe niht 
Wok Ubbe, and saw a mikel liht 

2068. Supply £at. 2070. Moucte ; supply to. 2076, 2077. 

H. places ben in 1. 2077, after min ; altering also to als {it is hardly 
necessary), 2080. sahalt ; and the second*, is expuncted by mistake, 

instead of the first. 2082. nith. 2083. knith. 2087. ioynge. 

2088, 2091. Supply ek H. 2089. mouthe. 2090, 2092. nith. 

2093. lith. 


In pe bour [per] Hauelok lay, 
' Also briht so it were day. 2095 

*r\EUS!' quoth Ubbe, 'hwat may pis be? 

Betere is i go miself, and se : 
Hweper he sitter nou, and wesseyle/z, 
Or ani sotshipe to-deyle, 

pis tid nihtes, also foles; 2100 

pan birp men caster hem in poles, 
Or in a grip, or in pe fen : 
Nou ne sitten none but wicke men, 
Glotuns, reueres, or wicke peues, 
Bi Crist, pat alle folk on leues ! ' 2105 

T_JE stod, and totede in at a bord 

Er he spak anlepi word, 
And saw hem slepen faste ilkon, 
And lye stille so pe ston; 

And saw [pat] al pat mikel liht 2110 

Fro Hauelok cam, pat was so briht. 
Of his mouth it com ilk del, 
pat was he war ful swipe wel. 
* Deus ! ' quoth he, i hwat may pis mene ! ' 
He calde bope arwe men and kene, 2115 

Knihtes and serganz swipe sleie, 
Mo pan an hundred, with-ute/z leye, 
And bad hem alle corner and se 
Hwat pat selcuth mihte be. 

2094. J>at; readier; seel. 2121. 2095. brith. 2099. Or 

of ani shotshipe; omit of, and read sotshipe. 2100. nithes. 

2101. birj>e. 2104. reures. 2105. onne. 2107. Her; 

anilepi. 21 10. Supply >at H. ; lith. 211 1. brith. 21 12, il. 

2 1 16. Knithes. 2119. mithe. 


ALS pe knihtes were corner alle [Pol. 214 b, col. 2.] 

per Hauelok lay, ut of pe halle, 21 21 

So stod ut of his mouth a glem, 
Riht al swilk so pe sunne-bem; 
pat al so liht was pare, bi heuene ! 
So per brenden serges seuene 2125 

And an hundred serges ok: 
pat durste hi sweren on a bok. 
He slepen faste alle fiue, 
So he weren brouht of Hue; 

And Hauelok lay on his lift side, 2130 

In his armes his brihte bride. 
Bi pe pappes he leyen naked : 
So faire two weren neuere maked 
In a bed to lyen samen : — 

pe knihtes pouht of hem god garner, 2135 

Hem forto she we and loken to. 
Riht also he stode/z alle so, 
And his bac was toward hem wend, 
So weren he war of a croiz ful gent 
On his riht shuldre, swipe briht, 2140 

Brihter pan gold ageyn pe liht; 
So pat he wiste, heye and lowe, 
pat it was kunrik pat he sawe. 
It sparkede, and ful brihte shon 
So doth pe gode charbucle-ston, 2145 

pat men se mouhte, by pe liht, 
A peni chesen, so was it briht. 
pa^ne bihelden he him faste, 

2120. knithes. 2123. Rith. 2124. lith ; wa (/^r was). 

2129. brouth. 2130. Read liftet 2131. brithe. 2135. 

knithes J>outh. 2137. Rith. 2138. Read went ? 2140. rith; 

swe {for swi]?e) ; brith. 2141. Brithter; lith. 2144. bnth. 

2146. Mouthese; lith. 2I 47» brith. 


So pat he knewew, at pe laste, 

pat he was Birkabeynes sone, 2150 

pat was here king, pat was hem wone 

Wei to yemew, and wel were 

Ageynes uten-laddes here. 

'For it was neuere yet a broker 

In al Denemark so lich anoper 2155 

So pis man, pat is so fayr 

Als Birkabeyn ; he is hise eyr/ 

XJE fellen sone at hise fet, 

Was non of hem pat he ne gret, 
Of ioie he weren alle so fawen 2160 

So he him haueden of erpe drawee. 
Hise fet he kisten an hundred sypes, 
pe tos, pe nayles, and pe lithes, 
So pat he bigan to wakne, 

And with hem ml sore to blakne ; [Fol. 215, col. 1.] 
For he wende he wolde/z him slo, 2166 

Or elles binde him, and do wo. 

QUOTH Ubbe, ' Louerd, ne dred pe nowht, 
Me pinkes that I se pi pouht. 
Dere sone, wel is me 2170 

pat y pe with eyen se. 
Man-red, louerd, bede y pe, 
pi man auht i ful wel to be; 
For pu art corner of Birkabeyn, 
pat hauede mani kniht and sweyn; 2175 

And so shalt pou, louerd, haue, 

2152. yeme (for yeme). 2164. Here follows the catchword— And 
wit hem. 2165. wit 2168. nowth. 2169. ]?outh. 

2 1 71. eyn. 2175. knith. 2176. For so read also ? 


pouh £>u be yet a ful yung knaue. 

pou shalt be king of al Denemark, 

Was £>er-inne neu^re non so stark. 

To-morwen shaltu manrede take 2180 

Of pe brune and of pe blake; 

Of alle J?at aren in pis tun, 

Bof>e of erl, and of barun, 

And of dreng, and of thayn, 

And of kniht, and of sweyn. 2185 

And so shaltu ben maked kniht 

With blisse, for ]?ou art so wiht/ 

PO was Hauelok swtye blif>e, 
And ^ankede God ful fele sif>e. 
On pe morwen, hwan it was liht, 2190 

And gon was ]?istemesse of niht, 
Vbbe dide up-on a stede 
A ladde lepe, and J>ider bede 
Erles, barouns, drenges, theynes, 
Klerkes, knihtes, burgeys, sweynes, 2195 

pat he sholden comen a-non 
Biforen him sone euerilkon, 
Also he louede/z here Hues, 
And here children and here wiues. 

LJIS bode ne durste he non at-sitte 2200 

pat he ne neme, for to wite 
Sone, hwat wolde pe iustise : 
And [he] bigan anon to rise, 

2177. pou. 2185. knith. 2186. mad; read maked {see 

H.5,23); knith. 2187. Wit; with. 2190. wan; lith. 2191. 

)>eniht; omit ]>e (Mb.). 2195. knithes bugeys. 2198. \o\xen 

{for louede^). 2200. Hise. 2201. meme {for neme) ; see 

I.1207. 2203. Supply ne. 


And seyde sone, ' LiJ>es me, 

Alle samen, J>eu and fre. 2205 

A ping ich wile you here shauwe, 

pat [ye] alle ful wel knawe. 

Ye witew wel J>at al pis lond 

Was in Birkabeynes hond, 

pe day J?at he was quic and ded; [Fol. 215, col. 2.] 2210 

And how £at he, bi youre red, 

Bitauhte hise children f>re 

Godard to yeme, and al his fe. 

Hauelok his sone he him [bi-]tauhte, 

And hise two douhtres, and al his auhte. 2215 

Alle herden ye him swere 

On boke, and on messe-gere, 

pat he shulde yeme hem wel, 

With-uten lac, with-uten tel. 

"LIE let his oth al ouer-go, 2220 

Euere wurf>e him yuel and wo ! 
For J>e maydnes here lif 
Refte he boj^en, with a knif; 
And him shulde ok haue slawe#, 
pe knif was at his herte drawee; 2225 

But God him wolde wel haue saue, 
He hauede reunesse of pe knaue, 
So f»at [po] he with his hend 
Ne drop him nouht, J)at sori fend! 
But sone dide he a fishire 2230 

SwiJ?e grete oJ?es swere, 
pat he sholde drenchen him 
In pe se, J>at was ful brim. 

2207. he; read ye. 2214. Supply bi-. 2217. bok (seel. 231 1). 
2228. Supply \>o, or Jeanne. 2229. nouth ; sor. 


"LI WAN Grim saw J?at he was so fayr, 

And wiste he was J>e rihte eir, 3235 

Fro Denemark ful sone he fledde 
In-til Englond, and }>er him fedde 
Mani winter, J>at til J>is day 
Haues he ben fed and fostred ay. 
Lokes, hware he sto/zdes her: 2240 

In al }?is werd ne haues he per; 
[Is] non so fayr, ne non so long, 
Ne non so mikel, ne non so strong. 
In f>is middelerd nis no kniht 

Half so strong, ne half so wiht. 2245 

Bes of him ful glad and bltye, 
And cometh alle hider swij^e, 
Manrede youre louerd forto make, 
BoJ>e brune and pe blake ! 

I shal mi-self do first ]>e gamen. 2250 

And ye sif>en alle samen.* 

/^\ knes ful fayre he him sette, 

^" > ^ Mouhte noting him J^er-fro lette, 

And bi-cam his man riht f>are, 

pat alle sawe/z J>at £>ere ware. [Fol. 215 b, col. 1.] 2255 

A FTER him stirt up laddes ten, 
And bi-comew hise men; 
And si)?en euerilk a baroun 
pat euere were/z in al that toun; 
And sif>en drenges, and sfyen thaynes, 2260 

2235. Rith; read rihte. 2242. Supply T3\s\$.\ Is seems Getter, 

2244. knith. 2245. with. 2253. Monthe. 2254. is; Rith 

2257. A word (beye ?) is added after men in a late hand. 


And sif>en knihtes, and sif>e# sweynes; 

So J^at, or £at day was gon, 

In al £>e tun ne was nouht on 

pat [he] ne was his man bi-comen: 

Manrede of alle hauede he nomen. 2265 

LJWAN he hauede of hem alle 
Manrede taken in the halle, 
Grundlike dide he hem swere 
pat he sholden him god feyth bere 
Ageynes alle f>at woren on Hue; 2270 

per-yen ne wolde neuer on striue, 
pat he ne madew sone ]?at oth, 
Riche and poure, lef and loth. 
Hwan f>at was maked, sone he se#de, 
Vbbe, writes fer and hende, 2275 

After alle J>at castels yemede, 
Burwes, tunes, sibbe and fremde, 
pat J^ider sholdew corner swif>e 
Til him, and heren tif»andes blif>e, 
pat he hem alle shulde telle : 2280 

Of hem ne wolde neuere on dwelle, 
pat he ne come sone plattinde, 
Hwo hors ne hauede, com gawgawde. 
So J>at with-i^ne a fourteniht, 

In al Denemark ne was no kniht, 2285 

Ne conestable, ne shireue, 
pat com of Adam and of Eue, 
pat he ne com biforn sire Ubbe : 
He dredde# him so J>ef doth clubbe. 

2261. knithes. 2263. nouth. 2264. it; read he, 2276. 

castel. 2277. an * 2284. -nith. 2285. knith. 2289. 

J)hef {with long s) = J?hef = ]>ef ; as in 1. 2434. 


TJWAN he pe king hauede# [i]-gret, 2290 

And he weren alle dune set, 
po seyde Ubbe, ' Lokes here 
Vre louerd swi]?e dere, 
pat shal ben king of al pe lond, 
And haue us alle under hond! 2295 

For he is Birkabeynes sone, 
pe king J?at was vmbe stonde wone 
[Us] for to yeme«, and wel were 
With sharpe swerd and lo^ge spere. 
Lokes nou, hu he is fayr ; [Pol. 215 b, col. 2.] 2300 
Sikerlike he is hise eyr. 
Falles alle to hise fet, 
Bicomes hise men ful sket/ 
He weren for Ubbe swif>e adrad, 
And dide sone al J>at he bad, 2305 

And yet he dede^ sumdel more; 
O bok ful grundlike he swore 
pat he sholde with him halde 
BoJ>e ageynes stille and bolde, 

pat euere wolde his bodi dere : 2310 

pat dide [he] hem o boke swere. 

TJWAN he hauede ma^rede and oth 

** Taken of lef and [ek] of loth, 

Vbbe dubbede him to kniht 

With a swerd ful swif>e briht; 2315 

And pe folk of al pe lond 

Bitauhte him al in his hond, 

2290. he haueden alle ]>e king gret ; cf. 1. 163. 2291. dun; read 

dune or adune; cf. 1. 162. 2298. Supply Us H. ; yeme; {cf. 

1. 2152). 2299. Wit sharp. 2300. hw. 2306. dede» he. 

2310. wode. 231 1. Supply he. 2313. Supply ek. 2314. 

knith. 2315. brith. 


pe cuneriche eu^nlk del, 

And made him king heylike and wel. 

Hvvan he was king, J>er mouhte me^ se 2320 

pe moste ioie f>at mouhte be: 

Buttinge with [pe] sharpe spares, 

Skirming with talevas J>at men beres, 

Wrastling with laddes, putting of ston, 

Harping and piping, ful god won, 2325 

Leyk of mine, of hasard ok, 

Romanz-reding on pe bok; 

per mouhte men here pe gestes singe, 

pe gleumen on pe tabour dinge ; 

per mouhte men se pe boles beyte, 2330 

And pe bores, with hundes teyte; 

po mouhte men se euerilk gleu, 

per mouhte men se hu grim greu ; 

Was neuere yete ioie more 

In al J>is werd, ]?an po was }x)re. 2335 

per was so mikel yeft of clones, 

pat, }?ouh i swore you grete othes, 

I ne wore [neuere] J>er-of crod: 

pat may i ful wel swere, bi God ! 

pere was swij^e gode metes, 2340 

And of wyn, pax men fer fetes, 

Riht al so mikel and gret plente* 

So it were water of pe se. 

pe feste fourti dawes sat, 

So riehe was neuere non so ]?at. [Pol. 216, col. 1.] 2345 

pe king made Roberd peve [a] kniht, 

2318. cunnriche {but see 1. 2400) ; il. 2320. mouthe. 2322. 

Supply ]>e. 2323. talevaces. 2328. mouthe. 2329. glevmen 

{sic); g£ 1. 2332. 2332. mouthe; eueril. 2333. mouthe; hw. 2336. 
mike ; see 1. 2352. 2337. ]>ou. 2338. nouth J)er offe croud (read neuere 
J>er-ofcrod). 2342. Rith; mik; seel. 2352. 2346. Supply a; knith. 


pat was ful strong and [ek] ful wiht ; 

And William Wendut ec, his broker, 

And Huwe Raue/z, J>at was J>at o£>er; 

And made hem barouns alle £>re, 2350 

And yaf hem lond, and of>er fe, 

So mikel, J>at ilker twenti knihtes 

Hauede of genge, dayes and nihtes. 

LJ WAN £at feste was al don, 

A thusand knihtes wel o bon 2355 

With-held J?e king, with h\m to lede; 
pat ilkan hauede ful god stede, 
Helm and sheld and brinie briht, 
And al J?e wepne J>at fel to kniht. 
With hem [ek] flue thusand gode 2360 

Sergaunz, j?at were/z to fyhten wode, 
With-held he [}>er], al of his genge: 
Wile I namore pe storie lenge. 
Yet hwan he hauede of al f>e lond 
pe casteles alle in his hond, 2365 

And conestables don £>er-inne, 
He swor, he ne sholde neuer bli/zne 
Til £at he were of Godard wrekew, 
pat ich haue of ofte speken. 

Half hundred knihtes dede he calle, 2370 

And hise fif thusand sergaunz alle, 
And dide [hem] swerew on the bok 
Sohe, and on Ipe auter ok, 
pat he ne sholde neuere blinne, 

2347. Supply ek ; with. 2348. willam; hec. 2352. twent (!). 

^353- nithes. 2355. ful wel; om. ful. 2358. brith. 2359. 

knith. 2360. Sttpply ek ; cf.\. 2371. 2361. fyht. 2362. 

Supply per. 2365. Cf. 1. 2276. 2370. Hal; read Half H. ; 

knithes. 2372. Supply hem. 


Ne for loue, ne for sinne, 2375 

Til pat he haueden Godard funde, 
And brouht biforn him faste bunde. 

PANNE he haueden sworn pis oth, 
Ne leten he nouht, for lef ne loth, 
pat he ne foren swipe rathe 2380 

per he was, unto pe pape 
per he yet on hunting for 
With mikel genge, and swipe stor. 
Robert, pat was of al pe ferd 

Mayster, girt was with a swerd, 2385 

And sat up-on a fill god stede, 
pat vnder him riht wolde wede; 
He was pe firste pat with Godard 
Spak, and seyde, 'Hede, caynard! 
Hwat dost pu here at pis pape ? [Fol. 216, col. 2.] 2390 
Cum to pe kinge, swipe and rape, 
pat sendes he pe word, and bedes, 
pat pu penke hwat pu him dedes, 
Hwan pu reftes with a knif 

Hise sistres here lif, 2395 

And sipen bede pu in pe se 
Drenchen him; pat herde he! 
He is to pe swipe grim: 
Cxxm nu swipe un-to him 

pat king is of pis kunerike, 2400 

pu fule man ! pu wicke swike ! 
And he shal yelde pe pi mede, 
Bi Crist pat wolde on rode blede!' 

2377. brouth. 2378. swor; read sworn. 2379. nouth. 2385. 

was girt wit. 2387. Rith. 2389. canenard {or cauenard). 

2390. Wat dos. 2391. king. 2396. An. 2400. 


UWAN Godard herde J>at [he] J>er frette, 

With ]?e neue he Robert sette 2405 

Biforn J>e teth a dint ful strong. 
And Robert kipt ut a knif long, 
And smot him }>oru £>e rihte arum: 
per-of was ful litel harum. 

TLJWAN his folk £at sau and herde, 2410 

Hou Robert with here louerd ferde, 
He haueden him wel ner browht of Hue, 
Ne were# his brej>ren and of>re fiue, 
[pat] slowen of here laddes ten, 
Of Godardes alj>er-beste men. 2415 

Hwan J>e o}?re sawe# J>at, he fledderc, 
And Godard swif>e loude gredde: 
' Mine knihtes, hwat do ye ? 
Shule ye f>us-gate fro me fie? 

Ich haue you fed, and yet shal fede, 2420 

Helpe}) me nu in J?is nede, 
And late ye nouht mi bodi spille, 
Ne Hauelok don of me hise wille. 
Yif ye it do, ye do you shame, 

And bringeth you-self in mikel blame/ 2425 

Hwaw he £>at herden, he wenten a-geyn, 
And slowen a kniht and [ek] a sweyn 
Of f>e kinges oune men, 
And woundedew abute/z ten. 

2404. Supply he. 2408. rith. 241 1. Hwou. 2412. browt, 

2413. twobre]?ren; omit two; and perhaps read brewer. 2 4*4' 

Supply pat. 2418. knithes. 2419. Sule. 2421. Helpe. 

2422. nouth. 2424. id (for it). 2427. knit; supply ok. 


PE kinges men, hwan he pat sawe, 2430 

Schute^ on hem, heye and lowe, 
And euerilk fot of hem [he] slowe 
But Godard one, J^at he flowe, 
So pe pef [pat] men dos henge, 

Or hund men shole in dike slenge. [Fol. 216 b, col. 1.] 
He bunder him ful swipe faste, 2436 

Hwil pe bondes wolden laste, 
pat he rorede als a bole, 
pat wore parred in an hole 

With dogges forto bite and beite: 2440 

Were pe bondes nouht to kite. 
He bounder him so fele sore, 
pat he gan crien Godes ore, 
pat he [ne] sholde his hend of-plette ; 
Wolde/z he nouht per-fore lette, 2445 

pat he ne bounder hond and fet: 
Dapeit pat on pat per-fore let ! 
But duntew him so man doth bere, 
And keste him on a scabbed mere, 
Hise nese went un-to pe crice : 2450 

So ledden he pat fule swike, 
Til he biforn Hauelok was brouht, 
pat he hauede ful wo wrowht, 
Bope with hungre and with cold, 
Or he were twelue winter old, 2455 

An*d with mani heui swink, 
With poure mete and feble drink. 
And [with] swipe wikke elopes, 

2431. Scutes. 2432. Supply he. 2434. Supply pat. 

2439. he wore; omit he. 2441. nouth. 2442. fo {for fo = so). 

2444. Supply ne; of his hend plette; see 1. 2755. 2452. was biforn 

hauelok brouth. 2453. haue {for hauede). 2454. hungred (!). 

2455. twel. 2458. Supply with. 


For al hise manie grete othes. 

Nu beyes he his olde blame : 2460 

1 Old sinne makes newe shame : ' 

Hwan he was [brouht] so shamelike 

Biforn pe king, pe fule swike, 

pe king dede Ubbe swij^e calle 

Hise erles, and hise barouns alle, 2465 

Dreng and thein, burgeis and kniht, 

And bad he sholde// demen him riht: 

For he kneu pe swike dam; 

Euerilk del, God was him gram. 

He setter hem dune bi pe wawe, 2470 

Riche and pouere, heye and lowe, 

pe olde men, and ek pe grom, 

And made per pe rihte dom, 

And seyden unto pe king anon, 

pat stille sat [al]-so pe ston: 2475 

' We deme, f>at he be al quic flawen, 

And sij>en to pe galwes drawee 

At Jris foule mere tayl ; 

poru his fet a ful strong nayl; 

And (?ore ben henged with two feteres, [Fol. 210 b, col. 2.] 

And pave be writen pise leteres: 2481 

'pis is pe swike f>at wende wel 

pe king haue reft pe lond ilk del, 

Arid hise sistres with a knif 

BoJ>e refte here lif.' 2485 

pis writ shal henge bi him f>ore ; 

pe dom is demd, seye we na more/ 

2460. holde. 2462. Wan ; supply brouht. 2463. Brouht 

biforn ; but Brouht belongs to 1. 2462. 2466. knith. 2467. rith. 

2469. Euerildel. 2470. dun. 2472. helde. 2 473« rithe. 

2476. slawen ; read flawen (cf. 11. 2495, 2502). 2477. drawe (for 

drawe). 2479. is. 2480. wit. 2483. il. 2486. jSare. 

G 2 


TJWAN pe dom was demd and giue, 

And he was with pe pastes shriue, 
And it ne mouhte ben non oper, 2490 

Ne for fader ne for broker, 
[But] f>at he sholde parne lif; 
Sket cam a ladde with a knif, 
And bigan riht at pe to 

For to ritte, and for to flo 2495 

So it were grim or gore ; 
And he bigan [Ipo] for to rore, 
pat men mihte pepen a mile 
Here him rore, pat fule file. 

pe ladde ne let no wiht for-pi, 2500 

pey he criede ' m^rci ! m^rci ! ' 
pat [he] ne flow [him] euerilk del 
With kniue mad of grander stel. 
pei garte bringe pe mere sone, 

Skabbed, and ful iuele o bone, 2505 

And bunde/z him riht at hire tayl 
With a rop of an old seyl, 
And drowerc him un-to pe galwes, 
Nouth bi pe gate, but ouer pe falwes; 
And henge [him] pore bi pe hals : 2510 

Dapeit hwo recke ! he was fals. 

PAiVNE he was ded, pat Sathanas, 
Sket was seysed al pat his was 
In pe kinges hand ilk del, 
Lond and lith, and oper catel, 251ft 

2489. wit. 2492. Supply But. 2494. Rith. 2496-7. 

Transposed ; see note. 2497. Supply \>o. 2498. mithe. 2500. 

with. 2502. Supply he and him ; eueril. 2503. knif; read kniue. 
2505. Skabbeb. 2506. rith. 2509. But. 2510. Supply 

him; Bi. 2514. il. 


And pQ king ful sone it yaf 

Vbbe in J>e hond, with a fayr staf, 

And seyde, ' Her ich sayse J>e 

In al J>e lond, in al J>e fe/ 

po swor Hauelok he sholde make, 2520 

Al for Grim, of monekes blake 

A pnbrie to s<?men in ay 

I^u Crist, til domesday, 

For J?e god he hauede him don 

Hwil he was pou^re and [iuel] o bon. [Fol. 217, col. 1.] 

And J>er-of held he wel his oth, 2526 

For he it made, God it wot! 

In Ipe tun J>er Grim was grauerc, 

pat of Grim yet haues Ipe name. 

Of Grim bidde ich na more spelle. — 2530 

But hwan Godrich herde telle, 

Of Cornwayle J?at was erl, 

(pat fule traytour, that mixed cherl !) 

pat Hauelok king was of Denemark, 

And [with a ferde] strong and stark 2535 

[Was] comen Engelond with-inne, 

Engelond al for to winne; 

And J?at she, ]mt was so fayr, 

pat was of Engelond riht eir, 

Was comen up at Grimesbi, 2540 

He was ful sorwful and sori, 

And seyde, ' Hwat shal me to ra]?e ? 

Goddot ! i shal do slon hem bape. 

2517. wit. 2519. The author has here omitted to tell us that 

Havelok, at the desire of his wife, invades England. See the note. 
2522. inne; read in. 2524. haueden. 2525. we {for w «1, error 

for iuel) ; cf 1. 2505. 2527. woth. 2531. wan. 2534. was 

king. 2535. ferde with him; read with a ferde. 2536. Supply 

Was. 2539. rith. 2540. pat was; om. f>at Z. 2541. sorful. 

2543. Goddoth. 


I shal don hengen hem ful heye, 

So mote ich brouke mi rihte eie ! 2545 

But-yif he of mi londe fie; 

Hwat wenderc he desherite me?' 

He dide sone ferd ut [bede,] 

pat al J>at euere mouhte o stede 

Ride, or helm on heued bere, 2550 

Brini on bac, and sheld and spere, 

Or ani dper wepne bere, 

Hand-ax, sype, gisarm, or sp^re, 

Or aunlaz, and god long knif, 

pat, als he louede leme or lif, 2555 

pat pey sholde« comen him to — 

With ful god wepne [y-boren] so — 

To Lincolne, per he lay, 

Of Marz pe seue#ten]?e day, 

So J?at he cou^e hem god fank; 2560 

And yif £>at ani were so rank 

That he J>a#ne ne come anon, 

He swor bi Crist, and [bi] seint Iohan, 

That he sholde maken him J>ral, 

And al his of-spring forth with-al. 2565 

PE Englishe [men] J>at herde fat, 
Was non J>at euere his bode [at]-sat; 
For he him dredde swife sore, 
So runci spore, and mikle more. 
At pe day he come sone [Fol. 217, col. 2.] 2570 

2545. Rith. 2546. lond; cf. 1. 2599. 2547. he to; om. to. 

2548. bidde; read bede. 2557. ye ber ; read y-boren. 2561. 

rang. 2563. Supply bi; cf 1. 1112. 2566. Supply men. 

2567. Read at-s&t; seel. 2200. " 2569. Runci. 


pat he hem sette, ful wel o bone, 

To Linc61ne, with gode stedes, 

And al pe wepne pat kniht ledes. 

Hwa« he wore come, sket was pe erl yare 

Ageynes Denshe men to fare, 2575 

And seyde, ' Lypes nu alle samen, 

Haue ich you gadred for no garner, 

But ich wile seyen you forhwi; 

Lokes hware here at Grimesbi 

Is uten-laddes here comen, 2580 

And haues pe przbrie numen ; 

Al pat euere mihten he finde, 

He bre/me kirkes, and pastes binde ; 

He strangleth mo;zkes and numies bope : 

Hwat wile ye, frendes, her-of rede? 2585 

Yif he regne pus-gate longe, 

He moun us alle ouer-gange, 

He moun vs alle quic henge or slo, 

Or pral maken and do ful wo, 

Or elles reue us ure Hues, 2590 

And ure children, and ure wiues. 

But dos nu als ich wile you lere, 

Als ye wile be with me dere; 

Nimes nu swipe forth and rape, 

And helpes me and yu-self bape, 2595 

And slos up-on pe dogges swipe : 

For shal [i] neuere more be blipe, 

Ne hoseled ben, ne of pn?st shriuen, 

2573. knith. 2574. psueoryare; seel. 2954. 2577. 

gadred you. 2 57^« for]>i {error for forpi = forhwi). 2580. 

Hise; read Is Z (here means army). 2581. haues nu ; omit nu. 

2582. mithen. 2585. Wat; frend; offe Rede. 2587. Moun. 

2596. up o. 2597. Supply i. 


Til f>at he ben of londe driuen. 

Nime we swi]?e, and do hem fie, 2600 

And folwes alle faste me; 

For ich am he, of al pe ferd, 

pat first shal slo with drawee swerd. 

DaJ>eyt hwo ne stonde faste 

Bi me, hwil hise armes laste ! ' 2605 

' Ye ! lef, ye ! ' quoth pe erl GunteV ; 

* Ya ! ' quoth pe erl of Cestre, Reyner. 

And so dide alle f>at per stode, 

And stirte forth so he were wode. 

po mouhte men se pe brinies brihte 2610 

On backes keste, and late rihte, 

pe helmes heye on heued sette; 

To armes al so swif>e plette, 

pat pel wore on a litel stunde 

Greyf>ed, als men mihte telle a pund ; [Fol. 217 b, col. 1.] 

And lopen on stedes sone anon, 2616 

And toward Grimesbi, ful god won, 

He foren softe bi Ipe sti, 

Til he come ney at Grimesbi. 

"LJAUELOK, f>at hauede spired wel 2620 

Of here fare, euerilk del, 
With al his ferd cam hem a-geyn, 
For-bar he nof>er kniht ne sweyn. 
pe firste kniht ]?at he per mette 

With pe swerd so he him grette, 2625 

[pat] his heued of he plette, 
Wolde he nouht for sinne lette. 

2606; couth; read quoth, as in 1. 2607. 2610. mouthe. 261 1. 
rithe. 2615. Grey }>et (see 1. 714); mithe. 2621. eueril. 

2623. knith. 2624. knith. 2626. For; read pat. 2627. nouth. 


Roberd saw £>at dint so hende, 

Wolde he neuere Ipepen wende, 

Til £>at he hauede anoj^er slawen 2630 

With ]>e swerd he held ut-drawen. 

William Wendut his swerd vt-drow, 

And Ipe J^redde so sore he slow, 

pat he made up-on the feld 

His lift arm fleye, with the swerd. 2635 

"LJUWE Raue# ne forgat nouht 

pe swerd he hauede ]?ider brouht; 
He kipte it up, and smot ful sore 
An erl, }rat he saw priken J>ore 

Ful noblelike upon a stede, 2640 

pat with him wolde al quic wede. 
He smot him on pe heued so, 
pat he pe heued clef a-two, 
And J>at [he] bi pe shuldre-blade 
pe sharpe swerd let [dune] wade 2645 

porw the brest unto pe herte ; 
pe dint bigan ful sore to smerte, 
pat pe erl fel dun a-non, 
Al so ded so ani ston. 

Quoth Ubbe, 'Nu dwelle ich to lo^ge/ 2650 

And let his stede sone gonge 
To Godrich, with a [ful] god spere 
pat he saw a-nofer bere, 
And smot Godrich, and Godrich him, 
Hetelike with forte grim, 2655 

2629. ]?e]?e (jfrr ]?e]?e) ; cf.\. 2727. 2632. Willaw. 2635. 

C/i 1. 1825 (with = by means of). 2636. nouth. 2637. brouth. 

2644. Supply he ; shudre. 2645. Supply dune. '2651. leth. 

2652. Supply fid. 2654. smoth. 2655. Perhaps read Hertelike, 

as in 1. 2748. 


So pat he bope felle dune, 

To pe erpe, first pe croune. 

pa^ne he woven fallen dune bopen, 

Grundlike here swerdes [he] ut-drowe«, 

pat weren swipe sharp and gode, [Fol.2i7b ; col. 2.] 2660 

And fouhten so pei woven wode, 

pat Ipe swot ran fro pe crune 

[To the fet riht pere adune.] 

per mouhte men se two knihtes bete 

Ayper on oper dintes grete, ,• 2665 

So pat with [pe] alper-leste dint 

Were al to-shiuered a flint. 

So was bi-twene^ hem a fiht 

Fro Ipe morwen ner to pe niht, 

So pat pei [stinted] nouht ne blunne, 2670 

Til pat to sette bigan pe su^ne. 

po yaf Godrich porw pe side 

Vbbe a wunde ful un-ride, 

So pat porw pat ilke wounde 

Hauede [he] ben brouht to grunde, 2675 

And his heued al of-slawen, 

Yif God ne were, and Huwe Rauen, 

pat drow him fro Godrich awey, 

And barw him so pat ilke day. 

But er he were fro Godrich drawee, 2680 

per were a pousind knihtes slawe^ 

Bi bope halue, and mo y-nowe, 

per pe ferdes to-gidere slowe. 

per was swilk dreping of pe folk, 

2658. dun. 2659. Supply he. 2663. Supplied from 11. 1904, 

1905. 2664. mouthe; to knithes. 2666. Supply ]?e ; lest; 

cf 1. 1978 H. 2670. Supply stinte H. (or stinted) ; nouth; blinne 

{error for blunne). 2675. Supply he ; brouth; ]>e grunde (om. fe). 


pat on pe feld was neuere a polk 2685 

pat it ne stod of blod so ful 

pat pe strem ran mtil pe hul. 

po tarst bigan Godrich to go 

Vp-on pe Danshe, and faste to slo, 

And forth-riht, also [leun] fares 2690 

pat neu<?re kines best ne spares, 

pawne is [he] gon, for he garte alle 

pe Denshe men biforn him falle. 

He felde browne, he felde blake, 

pat he mouhte ouer-take. 2695 

Was neuere non J?at mouhte J>aue 

Hise dintes, noyper kniht ne knaue, 

pat he [ne] felden so dos pe gres 

Bi-forn pe sype pat ful sharp is. 

Hwan Hauelok saw his folk so brittene, 2700 

And his ferd so swipe littene, 

He cam driuende up- on a stede, 

And bigan til him to grede, 

And seyde, ' Godrich, hwat is pe 

pat pou fare pus with me, 2705 

And mine gode knihtes slos ? [Fol. 218, col. 1.] 

Siker-like J>ou mis-gos. 

pou wost ful wel, yif pu wilt wite, 

pat Apelwold pe dide sitte 

On knes, and sweren on messe-bok, 2710 

On caliz, and on [pateyn] ok, 

pat pou hise douhter sholdest yelde, 

pan she were wiwmaTz of elde, 

26S8. tarst (sic) — 2X arst (at first) H. ; or read faste, as ml. 2689. 
2690. rith; leuin ; read leun H. {as in 1. 1867). 2692. his; 

supply he. 2695. mouthe. 2697. knith. 2698. Supply ne. 

2704. wat. 2709. site. 271 1. MS. here repeats messe, by 

mistake; read pateyn (cf. 1. 187) ; hok {for ok). 


Engelond [al] euerilk del : 

Godrich pe erl, pou wost it wel. 2715 

Do nu wel with-uten fiht, 

Yeld hire pe lond, for pat is riht. 

Wile ich forgiue pe pe lathe, 

Al mi dede and al mi wrathe, 

For y se pu art so wiht, 2720 

And of pi bodi so god kniht.' 

'pat ne wile ich neu^re mo/ 

Quoth erl Godrich, 'for ich shal slo 

pe, and hire for-henge heye. 

I shal Jurist lit pi rihte eye 2725 

pat pou lokes with on me, 

But pu swipe hepen fie/ 

He grop pe swerd ut sone anon, 

And hew on Hauelok, ful god won, 

So pat he clef his sheld on-two: 2730 

Hwan Hauelok saw pat shame do 

His bodi, per bi-forn his ferd, 

He drow ut sone his gode swerd, 

And smot him so up-on pe crune, 

pat Godrich fel to pe erpe adune. 2735 

But Godrich stirt up swipe sket— 

Lay he nowht longe at hise fet — 

And smot him on pe sholdre so, 

pat he dide pare undo 

Of his brinie ridges mo 2740 

pan pat ich kan tellen fro; 

And woundede \C\m riht \n pe flesh, 

pat tendre was and swipe nesh, 

So pat pe blod ran til his to: 

2714. Supply al; il. 2717. rith. 2720. with. 2721. knith. 

2725. rith. ~ 2737. nowth. 2742. rith. 


po was Hauelok swi]?e wo, 2745 

pat he hauede of him drawen 

Blod, and [ek] so sore him slawen. 

Hertelike til him he wente, 

And Godrich per fullike shente ; 

For his swerd he hof up heye, 2750 

And £>e hand he dide of-fleye, [Fol. 218, col. 2.] 

pat he smot him with so sore : 

Hu mihte he don him shame more? 

"LJWAN he hauede him so shamed, 

His hand of-plat, and yuele lamed, 2755 

He tok him sone bi f>e necke 
Als a traytour, daj>eyt hwo recke! 
And dide him binde and fetere wel 
With gode feteres al of stel ; 

And to J>e quen he sende him, 2760 

pat birde wel to him ben grim ; 
And bad she sholde don him gete, 
And J>at non ne sholde him bete, 
Ne shame do, for he was kniht, 
Til knihtes hauedew demd him riht. 2765 

pan ]?e Englishe men J>at sawe, 
pat J>ei wisten, heye and lawe, 
pat Goldeboru, J>at was so fayr, 
Was of Engeland riht eyr, 

And J>at pe king hire hauede wedded, 2770 

And haueden ben samen bedded. 
He comen alle, to crie merci, 
Vnto f»e king, at one cri, 

2747. Supply ek. 2749. fulike. 2753. Hw mithe. 2757. 

wo. 2764. knith. 2765. knithes; Rith 2769. rith. 


And beden him sone manrede and oth, 

pat he ne sholdew, for lef ne loth, 2775, 

Neuere more ageyn him go, 

Ne ride, for wele ne for wo. 

PE king ne wolde nouht for-sake, 
pat he ne shulde of hem take 
Manrede £at he beden, and ok • 2780 

Hold o]?es swere# on £>e bok ; 
But or bad he, ]?at £ider were brouht 
pe quen, for hem — swilk was his J>ouht — 
For to se, and forto shawe, 

Yif £at he hire wolde knawe. 2785 

pom hem wite» wolde he 
Yif J>at she auhte quen to be. 

CIXE erles weren sone yare, 

After hire for to fare. 
He nomen on-on, and corner sone, 2790 

And brouhtew hire, f>at under mone 
In al J>e werd ne hauede per 
Of hendeleike, fer ne ner. 
Hwan she was come }>ider, alle 

pe Englishe men bi-gurane falle 2795 

O knes, and grete^ swi£e sore, [Pol. 218 b, col. 1.] 
And seyden, 'Leuedi, Kristes ore 
And youres ! we hauew misdo mikel, 
pat we ayeyn you haue be fikel, 
For Englond auhte forto ben 2800 

2777. wel. 2778. nouth. 2782. brouth. 2783. fouth. 

2786. )>oruth; read^om. 2787. aucte. 2791. brouthew. 2793. 
-leik. 2795. to falle; om. to. 2797. kistes. 2799. ayen 

{see 1. 2776). 2800. ben youres ; but youres belongs to 1. 2801. 


Youres, and we youre men. 

Is non of us, [ne] yung ne old, 

pat [he] ne wot, J>at A]?elwold 

Was king of [al] ]?is kunerike, 

And ye his eyr, and fat fe swike 2805 

Haues it halden with mikel wronger 

God leue him sone [hey] to honge ! ' 

QUOTH Hauelok, ' Hwan fat ye it wite, 
Nu wile ich fat ye doune sitte, 
And, after Godrich haues wrouht, 2810 

pat haues him-self in sorwe brouht, 
Lokes fat ye denies him riht, 
For dom ne spareth clerk ne kniht; 
And sif en shal ich under-stonde 
Of you, [al] after lawe of londe, 2815 

Manrede, and holde of es bof e, 
Yif ye it wilen, and ek rothe/ 
Anon fer dune he hem sette, 
For non fe dom ne durste lette, 
And demden, him to binder faste 2820 

Vp-on an asse swife un-wraste, 
Andelong, nouht ouer-fwert, 
His nose went unto f e stert, 
And so [un]-to Linc61ne lede, 

Shamelike in wicke wede — 2825 

And hwan he [come] un-to fe borw, 

2801. And we youre men and youres; omit and youres, and prefix 
Youres from 1. 2800 H. 2802. Supply ne. 2803. we; read 

he {agreeing with wot). 2804. Supply al. 2807. Supply 

hey H. 2808. Quot. 2809. doun {see 1. 2818) ; site. 281 1. 

in sorwe him self brouth. 2812. rith. 2813. spared {read 

spareth); knith. 2815. Supply al. 2823. went is a pp. 2824. 
Supply un- \ see II. 2826, 2828. 2826. cam; read come (sub/.). 


Shamelike ben led J>er-]?oru, 

Bisouf>e po borw, un-to a grene — 

pat pave is yete, als y wene — 

And Ipere be bunde/z til a stake, 2830 

Aboutew him ful gret fir make, 

And al to dust be brend riht J>ore : — 

And yete demdew he per more, 

Olper swikes for to warne, 

pat hise children shulde J>arne 2835 

Euere-more pat eritage, 

pat his was, for hise utrage. 

1LJWAN pe dom was demd and seyd, 

Sket was pe swike on pe asse leyd, 
And [led un-]til ]?at ilke grene, 2840 

And brend til asken al bidene. [Fol. 218 b, col. 2.] 

po was Goldeboru ful bli]?e, 
She f>a?zked God [ful] fele sype 
pat pe fule swike was brend, 

pat wende wel hire bodi haue shend; 2845 

And seyde, 'Nu is time to take 
Manrede of brune and of blake, 
pat ich ride se and go: 
Nu ich am wreke/z of mi fo.' 

TLJAUELOK anon manrede tok 2850 

Of alle Englishe, on pe bok, 
And dide hem grete o]?es swere, 
pat he sholde« him god feyth bere 

2829. yet. 2832. Rith £ere. 2833. yet. 2835. sulde. 

2840. And him til (!) ; (perhaps for hun-til) ; read And led un-til ; see 
1. 2827. 2843. Supply ful. 2848. se ride. 2849. wreke 

{for wreke) ; see 1. 2992. 


N Ageyn [hem] alle pat wore# Hues, 
And pat sholde ben born of wiues. 2855 

PAiVNE he hauede sikernesse 
Taken of more and of lesse, 
Al at hise wille, so dide he calle 
pe erl of Cestre, and hise men alle, 
pat was yung kniht with-ute» wif, 2860 

And seyde, i Sire erl, bi mi lif, 
And f>ou wile mi conseyl tro, 
Ful wel shal ich with pe do ; 
For ich shal yeue pe to wiue 

pe fairest ping that is oliue. 2865 

pat is Gu;mild of Grimesby, 
Grimes douhter, bi seint Dauy, 
pat me forth brouhte, and wel fedde, 
And lit of Denemark with me fledde, 
Me for to berwen fro mi ded: 2870 

Sikerlike, f>oru his red 
Haue ich liued in- to pis day, 
Blissed worf>e his soule ay! 
I rede pat pu hire take, 

And spuse, and curteysye make; 2875 

For she is fayr, and she is fre, 
And al so hende so she may be. 
pertekene she is wel with me, 
pat shal ich ful wel shewe pe ; 

For ich [wile] giue pe a giue, 2880 

pat euere-more, hwil ich Hue, 
For hire shal-tu be with me dere, 

2854. Supply hem. 2856. hauede?*. 2860. knith wit. 

2867. douther. 2868. broute. 2870. hnrwe; read berwen 

{as in 11. 697, 1426). 2875. curteyse {for curteysye); see 1. 194. 
2880. Supply wile. 



pat wile ich f>at J>is folc al here/ 

pe erl ne wolde nouht ageyn 

pe kinge be, for kniht ne sweyn, 2885 

Ne of pe spusing seyen nay, *' [Fol. 219, col. 1.] 

But spusede [hire] J>at ilke day. 

pat spusinge was [in] god time maked, 

For it ne were neuere clad ne naked 

In a ]?ede samened two 2890 

pat cam to-gidere, liuede so, 

So Ipey diden al here Hue: 

He geten samew sones flue, 

pat were pe beste men at nede 

pat mouhte riden on ani stede. 2895 

Hwan Guzmild was to Cestre brouht, 

Hauelok pe gode ne for-gat nouht 

Bertram, J>at was the erles kok, 

pat he ne dide [him] caller ok, 

And seyde, ' Frend, so God me rede, 2900 

Nu shaltu haue riche mede 

For wissing, and f>i gode dede 

pat tu me dides in ful gret nede. 

For Jmrane y yede in mi cuuel, 

And ich ne hauede bred ne sowel, 2905 

Ne y ne hauede no catel, 

pou feddes and claddes me ful wel. 

Haue nu for-J>i of Cornwayle 

pe erldom ilk del, with-uten fayle, 

And al Ipe lond J>at Godrich held, 2910 

BoJ>e in towne and ek in feld ; 

2884. nouth. 2885. king; knith. 2887. Supply hire. 

2888. Supply in H. 2889. newere = nere. ' 2892. dide {for 

dide). 2895. mouthe. 2896. bronth. 2897. nouth. 

2899. Supply him H. 2905. haue. 2909. ildel. 


And ]?erto wile ich J?at }?u spuse, 

And fayre bring hire un-til huse, 

Grimes douhter, Leuiue pe hende, 

For J>ider shal she with pe wende. 2915 

Hire semes curteys forto be, 

For she is fayr so flour on tre; 

pe heu is swilk in hire ler 

So [is] pe rose in roser, 

Hwan it is fayre sprad ut newe 2920 

Ageyn pe sunne briht and lewe.' 

And girde him sohe with pe swerd 

Of pe erldom, bi-forn his ferd, 

And with his hond he made him kniht, 

And yaf him armes, for f>at was riht, 2925 

And dide him J>ere sone wedde 

Hire ]?at was ful swete in bedde. 

AFTER £at he spused wore, 
"^ Wolde pe erl nouht dwelle f>ore, 
But sone na#z until his lond, 2930 

And seysed it al in his hond, [Fol. 219, col. 2.] 

And liuede pei-inne, he and his wif, 
An hundred winter in god lif, 
And gaten mani children samen, 
And liueden ay in blisse and garner. 2935 

Hwaw pe maydens were spused boj^e, 
Hauelok anon bigan ful rathe 
His Denshe men to feste wel 
With riche landes and catel, 

2914. douther. 2919. Supply is. 2920. fayr. 2921. 

brith. 2924. knith. 2925. rith. 2929. nonth. 29,33. 

Between this line and the next are inserted in the MS. the words : For 
he saw J>at he, which have been subsequently struck out by the same 
hand, and the word vacat affixed. 2939. Wit. 


So J>at he weren alle riche: 2940 

For he was large and nouht chiche. 

PER-after sone, with his here, 
For he to Lundone, for to bere 
Conine, so pat it sawe, 

Englishe and Denshe, heye and lowe, 2945 

Hou he it bar with mikel pride, 
For his barnage £>at was un-ride. 

PE feste of his corunircg 
Lastede with gret ioying 
Fourti dawes, and sumdel mo; 2950 

po bigu^nen J>e Denshe to go 
Vn-to J>e king, to aske leue, 
And he ne wolde hem nouht greue; 
For he saw f>at he woren yare 

In-to Denemark for to fare; 2955 

But gaf hem leue sone anon, 
And bitauhte hem seint Iohan; 
And bad Ubbe, his iustise, 
pat he sholde on ilke wise 

Denemark yeme and gete so, 2960 

pat no pleynte come him to. 

T T WAN he wore parted alle samen, 

Hauelok bi-lefte with ioie and garner 
In Engelond, and was f>er-i«ne 
Sixti winter king with winne, 2965 

2941. nouth chinche {read chiche. 2945. Henglishe ant. 2946. 
Hwou. 2948. corunig. 2 949« Laste. 2953. nouth. 

2963. wit. 


And Goldeboru quen, pat i wene 

So mikel loue was hem bitwene, 

pat al pe werd spak of hem two : 

lie louede hire, and she him so, 

pat neyper oper mihte be 2970 

Fro oper, ne no ioie se 

But-yf he were to-gidere bope; 

Neuere yete ne were» he wrope, 

For here loue was ay newe; 

Neuere yete wordes ne grewe [Fol. 219 b, col. 1.] 

Bitwene hem, hwar-of no lathe 2976 

Mihte rise, ne no wrathe. 

1_JE geten children hem bi-twene 

Sones and douhtres riht fiuetene, 

Hwar-of pe sones were kinges alle, 2986 

So wolde god it sholde bifalle; 

And pe douhtres alle queues : 

'Him sto/zdes wel pat god child strenes/ — 

Nu haue ye herd pe gest al poru 

Of Hauelok and of Goldeborw; 2985 

Hu he were# boren, and hu fedde, 

And hou he wore/z with wro^ge ledde 

In here youpe, with trecherie, 

With tresoun, and with felounye; 

And hou pe swikes hauederc tiht 2990 

Reuen hem pat was here riht, 

And hou he weren wreken wel, 

Haue ich seyd you &aeri\k del; 

2970. o)>e (for ofyere) ; mithe. 2972. to gidede (!). 2976. ne. 

2977. Mithe. 2 979- douthres rith. 2986. Hw; born; hw. 

2987. hwou. 2990. hwou; 299 1 rith. 2992. hwou. 

2993. sey(^a^seyd); eiwrildel. 


For^i ich wolde biseken you 

pat haue« herd J?e rime mi, 2995 

pat ilke of you, with gode wille, 
Seye a pater-noster stille, 
For him }?at haueth pe ryme maked, 
And }>er-fore fele nihtes waked; 
pat lesu Crist his soule bringe 3000 

Bi-forn his fader at his endinge. 
A— M— E— N. 

2994. And for])i ; om. And. 2995. rim. 2998. rym. 


(d) Til sche be womman of elde, 174 

pat sche it may here selwe welde. 175 

[H]e andswerde and seyd anon, 176 

Be lesu crist and sen Ion, 177 

pat erl godric of Cornualie 178 

[H]e is tr^we man, wytouten fa(i)le, 179 

Wis man of red, and of dede, 180 

... an men haued of mekel drede ; 181 

[A]nd he may her^ best ^eme, 182 

... of hym ymket queme 183 

(e) A riche king, strong and stare. 341 

His name it was birkebein ; 342 

He hauede mani knigth and swen; 343 

He was fayr man and wyth, 344 

And is body J>e beste knigth 345 

pat eu^e mith neme^ to werre 346 

Riden on stede, or handelen spere. 347 

pre childre he hauede be if, 348 

pat he louede as is . . . 349 

He hadde sone & doutres to 350 

SwiJ>e fayr, and fellet so. 35 t 

pan he was in is best[e po]ynt 352 

Iuel him toke in eueri gonyt 353 

pat he was so wyth euel bunde, 354 

pat he (ne) mith liuen non stunde. 355 

pan he mith no longere liuen 356 

For siluir J>at he mithe giuen. 357 

pan he f>at wiste, he dede senden 358 

176 Space left for initial H. 183 Read ym \d\ket 

352 \_po~\ynt\ traces of po visible. 


After prestis, fer and henden, 359 

After chan(o)n(e)s, munkes bof>en, 360 

Hym to wissen and to ro]?en, 361 

Hym to husselen and to schriue, 3 62 

Quiles ]mt he were oliue. 363 

Quan he was husseled & wel schriuen, 364 

(/) Grim toke £e cheld, and bond wel faste, 537 

Whiles £e bondes mith laste, 538 

pat was a foul strong line; 539 

panne was haueloc in mekel pine. 540 

Wiste he neuere er of wo; 541 

But Iesu crist, }>at made to go 542 

pe alte, & J>e dumme for to speke, 543 

Haueloc J>out of godard wreke, 544 

*And Ipat he do him al quic flo 
*Wyt schame and pine and mekel wo. 
*For (he) it seruede on fele manere, 
*Als ye schuln forwar her?. 
*He was traitur in mani akas, 
And he it aboute ]?at he swilc was. 
*He broute ]>e child in mechel sorwen, 
*Yet wurth is soule neuere borwen. 
*He bad grim don is comaundemet, 
*And perform was he ate £e laste schent. 
For J>anne grim hadde him faste bounde, 545 

And sithen in an old dope wnden, 546 

*He f»riste in his muth wel faste 
A corner of an old clo]?e, ful hun-wraste, 547 

pat he ne mith speken ne greden, 548 

Quider so he wolde hym leden. 549 

364 schriuen partly cut away. 547 MS. himwraste. 

549 After this line traces of another cut away, perhaps ' For godard 
hadde comaund him so ' : him so plain, tops of hadde comaund visible. 


[Notes taken from Sir Frederick Madden' s edition of 1828 are, as in 
the original edition of this book, distinguished by the letter M. Notes 
due to Professor Skeat are also indicated, but the greater part of his 
work on the text is contained in the foot-notes. Reference is made to 
articles only when they contain matter of first importance for the text of 
Havelok, and in the case of any particular emendation the first proposal 
only is mentioned. In general, parallels are quoted at the first occur- 
rence of a phrase or line, and cross-references are omitted.] 

9-10. Cf. 11. 25-6, 87-8, 1970-1, 2894-5. 

27. // was, 'there was 5 , the anticipated subject being commonly 
expressed by it in ME. ; cf. 11. 462, 591, 723, 2076, &c. 

bi are dawes, i in former days', ON. dr-dagar. 

28. pat in his time, i in whose time' ; for since the ME. relative fat 
was incapable of inflexion, it was often supplemented by the personal 
pronoun : fat he — ' who ' ; fat his — l whose ' ; fat him — ' whom '. 

29. He dede maken, &c, l (which) he caused to be made and to be 
well kept '. The infinitive after don, maken is freely used with a passive 
value; cf. 11. 38, 41, &c. 

31-2. For this enumeration cf. 11. 1327-8, 2183-5, 2I 94~5> 2260-1, 

38. ' And everywhere had them called (to preferment) '. 

44. c Neither gold nor wealth went for them, i.e. ransomed them' ; 
cf. 1. 1430. 

55-6. fram : sham. The rime perhaps points to influence of ON. 
skamm- on ME. shame (OE. scamu), which elsewhere rimes with 1. 727 
name, 1. 1938 lame, and 11. 83, 1191, 1673, &c. blame < O.Fr. bldme. 
Cf. Introd. § 20 (5). 

63-4. blome : rome. Dr. Craigie kindly sends me the following note : 
' Read louerd to Rome. The rime with blome shows that rome cannot 
be the verb " to roam". To probably means " as far as". The correction 
of lond to lou'd — louerd is simple and obvious.' Stratmann, E. S. 1. 423, 
had pointed out that rome — Rome, not roam, but offered no solution. 
Cf. desqua Rome in this sense, Lai d' 'Havelok, 1. 367. 

80-1. A confused construction ; were requires he made him ; while 
fat he ne made him would normally follow was. 

87-90. Madden compares a passage in Ritson's Metrical Romances, 
ii. 281 : 

He was the beste kyng at nede 
That ever mihte ride on stede, 
Other wepne welde, other folk out-lede ; 
Of mon ne hede he never drede. 

106 NOTES 

91. A common expression ; cf. 1. 870. 

92. The phrasing in 1. 1853 perhaps points to [showe] as the better 
addition : ' let him see from the deeds of his hand ', &c. 

98. brede, WS. brssde, ' roast meat \ 

115. underfong is a regular analogical form, and in Cursor Mundi, 
11. 1519, 1542, has the meaning required here ; see Sisam in Archiv, 128. 
194 ff. 

118. Cf. 1. 2542. 

123. Cf. 11. 837, 849. 

130. 'And do with them (her subjects) what was pleasing to her*. 
Garnett's emendation for MS. far. For don him of ci, 11. 953, 2423. 

139. See Introduction, p. xxiii. 

148. i Nor any who knew a remedy for his evil \ 

149. ' For him there was nothing but death \ 
151. Cf. 11. 1248, 2541. 

154. The addition should perhaps be [shulde] ; cf. 1. 209, ' And preide 
he shulde yeme hire wet', and 11. 2443-4, 244-5. Note the sequences 
throughout the poem. 

160. ' I am very grateful to you \ For kan pank, OE. fane cunnan, 
cf. 1. 2559. 

162-3. Cf. 11. 2290-1. 

164. gouen hem Me (cf. 1. 11 29, note). It obviously means ' grieved ', 
but the exact sense of give is doubtful. 

175. 'Perhaps yemen and welde are intransitive, ' govern and rule ', and 
[hir] is unnecessary ; ci.yemede intransitive in 1. 975. 

176-7. an-on : Ion. Since Havelok seems to have been composed in 
the North of England, OE. on an would possibly have a, not 0, in its 
second element in the original. Hence it is possible to delete the added 
[lesu], and read anan \ Iohan ; and so at 1. 11 12. Note that in order 
to make Iohan a monosyllable, the MS. has been altered here and at 
11. 1112, 1721, 2563; while in the only other instance, 1. 2957, the 
ordinary elision before hem has to be neglected. The spelling of the 
MS., with four cases of Iohan against one Ion, is equally decisive for 
the disyllabic form. 

1 90-1. Cf. 11. 2218-9. 

199. Cf. 1. 1080. 

201. Cf. 11. 2311, 2372. 

217. Cf. 1. 2743. 

218-19. The transposition suggested by Zupitza, ZfdA. 19. 125, 
removes all difficulty : ' he made his will very prudently, and straight- 
way carried it out in every particular ' ; cf. 1. 363. 

221. i.e. enough to provide his winding-sheet. 

222. Cf. 1. 2018. 

228. In the E. E. T. S. editions, Skeat rightly preferred to take loude 

LINES 91-361 107 

as lotfde-louzxd(e), but abandoned it here in deference to Holthausen. 
See Canterbury Tales, A 4287, In manus tuas, lord, to thee I calle, and 
Skeat's note. The ultimate source is Luke xxiii. 46. See Kolbing in 
ES. 16. 302. 

232-3. For the phrasing cf. 11. 2320-1. 

235. drawing hi hor, ' tearing of hair ', with ON. hdr, as the rime 

245-7. For attempts to defend the syntax see Morsbach, ES. 29. 371 f., 
and Horn, Anglia, 29. 132, who supply his soule as subject of wone. 
This seems to be the author's intention. Holthausen, following Schmidt, 
inserts late before wone ; cf. 1. 406. 

307. For proverbial phrases cf. 11. 600, 648, 907, 1338, 1352, 1635, 
1693, 2036, 2461, 2813, 2983. 

393. Apparently ' that it may be well pleasing to their kin ', which 
seems unsatisfactory. 

255. Cf. 11. 2269, 2853. 

256-7. ' To all men he gave what seemed fitting, until the day they 
died', i.e. for as long as they lived. Holthausen's explanation, that 
1. 257 contains the same idea as II./405, 2210, seems the best. 

277. Literally 'awe stood from him to all England'; cf. Beowulf, 
783-4 Norddenum stod atelic egesa, and New Eng. Diet. s.v. Awe. A I 
Engelond is properly dative, but when the dative inflexion was lost, it 
was misunderstood as a nominative. Hence NE. 'all England stood 
in awe of him \ 

279. The rime shows that the vowel is short ; hence the word is not 
OE. gad, but ON. gadd-r as in 1. 1016. 

300-1. yeue : Hue ; read the alternative form yiue, and so at 11. 485, 
1079, 1109, 1218, 1437. 

307. ' Hope often plays tricks on the fool '. 

311. ' So may I have my white neck! 5 cf. 11. 1743, 2545; and 
Canterbury Tales, B 4490, So mote I brouke wel myn eyen tweye. 

314. Cf. 1. 2220. 

315. Cf. 11. 466,419, 2051. 

319. also, 'as, like'; OE. alswd yields in ME. also, alse, als, as, 
which are often used indifferently. 

331 ff. 'May Jesus Christ', &c, the subject repeated in 1. 223. 

349. Cf. 1. 1707. 

354-5. Morsbach, ME. Grammatik, § 129 b, explains the rime as 
wulde -.fulde< OE. fullian ; but Hupe's suggestion (Anglia, 13. 196) 
wilde : filde is better ; cf. Cursor, 11. 18759-60, fulfild : wild; 
Robert of Brunne's Chronicle, ed. Hearne, i. p. 86, wild: filled, &c. 

360-1. befe : rede, MS. hope ! The form befe occurs at 11. 694, 1680, 
always in the bad rime with rede ; and therefore it can hardly be from 
OK. bkbi as Bjorkmann, p. 108, supposes. Otherwise the normal forms 

108 NOTES 

bdpe, bdpe, bdpen are used. rede{n) vb., WS. riedan, is proved by the 
rime in 11. 104, 687, 2085. But beside it occur rdpe(n), ropeiti) from 
ON. rdda in 11. 1335, 2817. red sb., WS. rod, is proved by rimes in 
11. 148, 518, 826, 1194, 1204, 2210, 2871. But the cognate ON.' form 
rdd is proved in 11. 75, 2542. Copyists, especially Southern copyists, 
constantly substitute English for Norse forms, and are then likely to 
patch the rimes just as has been done in the text ; so that bdpe : rape 
would become bape : rede, and then falsely bepe : rede. Hence we need 
not hesitate to restore the Norse forms wherever they are required, 
reading bope : roJ>e or bape : rape here and at 11. 693-4, 1 680-1 ; and 
rape (or rope) in 1. 2585. In the present case the change is supported 
by the Cambridge fragment, bopen : ropen. 

375. ¥oxfrende< ON.frsendi, see Glossary. 

390. men is singular. OE. man, ' one '. 

395. Although po his riht, 'those his rights', is a correct form, it is 
worth noting that the MS. has po for pou at 11. 388, 1229, 1274; and 
I should prefer to read po\_zi'] here. 

396-7. For the phrasing cf. 11. 1443-4. 

407. Such confused sentences are common, ' God ' and ' Christ ' 
being used indifferently; cf. 1. 432. 

410-11. Holthausen's retention of MS. pe toper, and alteration of eir 
to broper, is certainly preferable ; cf. 11. 2348-9, 1 690-1. 

416-17. Cf. 11. 2454-5. 

420. The added \ne] is not necessary; cf. the MS. reading in 1. 548, 
and Zupitza in Anglia, 1. 468, on the use of ne — ' neither . . . nor\ 

421. bebedde is not a known compound, and the form of the prefix 
would be M-. Hence be is probably due to repetition of the first letters 
oibedde. Read bedde, and restore MS. ne. See Stratmann, ES. 1. 423-4. 

432. ran on Mode, ' bled'; it is perhaps possible to retain the MS. 
reading pat, and, assuming confused syntax, to render ' (on) which God 
himself bled '. 

455. Cf. 1. 654. 

456. On the reading in the text, which involves the minimum of 
alteration, see Sisam, Archiv, 128. 196. 

462-3. ' Alas ! is there no corn from which bread could be made? ' 

464. MS. f)S hungreth. The assumption that the AS. p would be 
substituted for w in ws = us involves serious difficulties. It would be 
simpler to suppose, as Dr. Bradley suggests, that the initial fi is mis- 
written for V= U. And hungreth may be trisyllabic = hungereth. 

471-2. Cf. 11. 141 3-4. 

484. Cf. 1. 2172. Hence biddi stands for bede z, an early instance of 
the confusion of OE. beodan, s offer, command ', with OE. biddan, ' ask \ 
So MS. bidde for bede in 1. 2458, destroying the rime. 

504-6. 'And yet 'he wished that he were dead, except that he was 

LINES 375-664 109 

unwilling to slay him with his own hands, that foul fiend ! ' Napier's 
emendation and fouh (cf. MS. in 1. 1669) is generally accepted, though 
it is possible to defend and ]?ouhte. For the repeated nouht many 
emendations have been suggested, but without regard to the parallel 
phrasing in 11. 2228-9, which requires the retention of the second nouht. 
The present reading seems to overcome many difficulties. For but on 
pat, 'but only that 7 , 'except that', cf. 1. 962. Hend here and at 
11. 141 2, 2069 is the old Norse umlauted plural hend-r. 

521. Cf. 1. 670. 

538. i.e. as long as there was rope to bind with ; cf. 1. 2437. 

544. On the added lines in the Cambridge fragment see Introduction, 
§ 4, and Skeat in MLR. 6, 457. 

546-52. The whole passage seems corrupt. It is true that by 
assuming an elaborate sentence structure, taking old doth as equivalent 
to keuel, and giving an unusual meaning to in . . . wounden, some- 
thing can be made of it (see Emerson, Reader, p. 274). But this is 
unnatural, and it is simpler to suppose a lacuna, presumably of two 
whole lines including a main verb ; see Zupitza, Anglia, 1. 469. At 
first sight the Cambridge fragment, which has 

*He J>riste in his muth wel faste 
A corner of an old clo]?e, ful hun-wraste, 
seems to supply the deficiency. But the inclusion of the first line in the 
text of Havelok breaks the couplet system. The corruption seems to 
have gone too far to permit of satisfactory emendation. 

549. hwere usually taken as = hwefer, but probably 'wherever'. 
The fragment has Quider so. 

560. Holthausen's reading haue [saue] is nearer the MS., and is 
certainly right ; cf. 1. 2226. 

563. For the phrasing cf. 11. 674, 1225, 2351. 

566. Cf. I.812. 

567-8. The emendation is due to Morris. 

572. Holthausen and Skeat take him as referring to Grim or Godard. 
Emerson, Reader, p. 275, refers him to Havelok, who regrets that wild 
beasts did not carry him off, and save him from the ill-treatment of 
cruel men. Both are difficult. 

591-2. ' From his mouth there issued a ray \ For this idiomatic use 
Of stand ci. Beowulf, 11. 726-7 him of eagum stod . . . leoht unfseger\ 
and for the whole passage cf. 11. 2122-6. 

597. MS. and should rather be restored. 

611. For the phrase do ful wo cf. 1. 2589. 

631. [mi~\ is not essential. 

664. it seems to be the anticipated object in apposition to wey. But 
it might possibly be the repeated subject ' Grim he ' ; cf. the MS. reading 
in 1. 2264. 


679-80. Skeat compares Handlyng Sinne, 11. 5613-14: 
Pers stode and loked on him 
Felunlyche, with y^en grym. 

680. MS.poruthlike; for the spelling cf. MS. in 1. 2786. 

689. Cf. 1. 845. 

691. 'It seemed to Grim too long until he ran', &c. 

693-4. Read rape : bape, or rope : bope ; see note on 11. 360-1. MS. 
Hue may be construed as infinitive. 

698. wiues: OE. wifes (gen. sg.). 

721 ff. Instead of the storm, in the French text Grim's ship is attacked 
by pirates, who kill the whole of the crew, with the exception of him- 
self and family, whom they spare on the score of his being ah old 
acquaintance. — M. 

721-2. Many emendations of the MS. reading have been proposed, 
but the sense is clear, if loosely expressed. 

739. fere for to erde, l in order to dwell there \ 

745. [it] calle : Zupitza's emendation, Anglia, 1. 470 f. 

746. Here and in 11. 1331, 1377, 2337, the substitution of perof for 
MS. perojfe entails emendation of the text. Hence it seems that peroffe 
is a genuine trisyllabic form. Note the MS. spellings in 11. 372, 466, 
2558. Offe is an extended form of of, like onne 1. 347 from on. 

755. MS. hwel for hel = el, Holthausen's emendation. 

761-2. ' One for himself and three others for his sons '. 

763-4. fonge : gronge. A bad rime, for g in fonge cannot be pala- 
talized; cf. 11. 855-6 gonge{n) : fonge. As gronge seems fixed by the 
sense, a French word is to be expected. Holthausen, Archiv, no. 101, 
suggests chonge, c to exchange ' ; and it is worth noting that, according 
to Gaimar, 1. 449, Grim lived by exchanging fish for bread : Del peissun 
cangium le pain. 

784. Zupitza's emendation, Anglia, 7. 146 f. It seems agreed that 
setes = set es, e set them ' ; but perhaps the relative is omitted : * nets 
(which) he often sets in the sea \ 

789-90. MS. horn : grom should remain ; cf. OE. set ham. See 
Introd. § 20 (3). Horn has few correct rimes. 

791-2. Cf. 11. 829-30. 

795-6. Read longe : gonge, or lange : gange, and so at 11. 1057-8. 

801. < Ought not to have (food and drink) except when toiling long'. 
But Morsbach, ES. 29. 373, takes nouht = ne ouht, and retains the 
MS. pat, 'ought not to have that (viz. food and drink) except', &c. 

808. net < OE. neat, 'an ox', as the rime shows; cf. 11. 1026, 1891. 

819-20. Skeat points out the parallel, Handlyng Sinne, 11. 5811-12 : 
'Plenerly, alle J>at he tok, 
Wyth-helde he nat a ferthyng noke \ 
See Introduction, § 14. They suggest that [Of] should be omitted. 

LINES 679-970 III 

833-4. Emendations and explanations show that the editors have 
missed the construction : ' nor any other good {pat douhte) fish with 
(which) he might feed his household '. 

839 ff. In the French, Grim sends Havelok away for quite a different 
reason, viz. because fishing is not a suitable occupation for him. 

855. Read gonge. 

863. he wasful wit, 'he was quite at a loss ' ; cf. 1. 1042. 

870. MS. on should probably remain in view of parallels like Ysum- 
bras, 1. 458 He sprang for the as sparke one glede. 

875-6. brigge : ligge ; either OE. brycg, OE. licgan, or the corre- 
sponding ON. bryggja, sb., liggja, vb. ; 11. I373"4 pigge '- ^gg e are 
equally ambiguous. 

879. pet oper day, ' the next day ', as in 1. 1755. 

883-4. bouht: oft. Holthausen alters bouht to coft, participle of 
coupe } ON. kaupa, ' to buy '. But since the guttural spirant h became/ 
very early in the North, [boft] is a possible pronunciation. 

Observe the construction ' the. Earl's provisions of Cornwall ', where 
Modern English has the group-genitive 'the Earl of Cornwall's pro- 
visions '. 

907. ' The food you eat is well invested ' ; cf. 1. 2036 and note, and 
for the sense 1. 1693. 

928. Cf. 11. 1997, 2109, 2475. 

934. 'He asked nobody to go to meet him', i.e. help him on the 
return journey with the full pail. 

948. For the phrasing cf. 11. 652, 1278. 

949-50. It is not necessary to assume a loss of two lines, for the same 
rime occurs elsewhere, e.g. 2676-7 slawen : rauen ; Sir Guy, 3173, 
haue : plawe, Sec. The rime of -u- (< OE. -f)with. -w seems to occur 
in good MSS. only when w represents the OE. voiced spirant g, and 
perhaps indicates a dialectal development parallel to the change of the 
voiceless spirant h to/; see note to 11. 883-4. Translate ' there was no 
boy so little for the purpose of sporting and frolicking that he would 
not play with him ' ; i. e. Havelok was good-natured enough to play 
with children too young to make play interesting. 

955. stille and bolde, c shy and bold', a tag ; cf. 1. 2309. 

957. Read sowe, which, from its distribution, can hardly be WS. 
sdwon. It may be Northern sdgun, or of Scandinavian origin, or an 
analogical English formation. See Bjorkmann, p. 87 note. 

959. i.e. his fame spread far and wide. For this common idiom cf. 
Beowulf, 1. 18 blasd wide sprong, and for later parallels Hall's note to 
King Horn, 1. 211. 

970. dones on, ' put them on '. es {is, ys, as), an unexplained pronoun 
= ' them ', is particularly common in Southern and Eastern texts ; cf. 
1. 1 1 74, and note to 1. 784. 

112 NOTES 

987-8. By transposing strong and long, Holthausen obtains no appre- 
ciable improvement in sense, and breaks the tag stark and strong, which 
must remain; cf. 11. 608, 1271, 2535. 

997. Kolbing's emendation hore, ES.^19. 146 f., seems inevitable. 

1008. blac and brown: a tag characteristic of Havelok; cf. 11. 1909, 
2181, 2249, 2694, 2847. The phrase apparently means ' dark and fair', 
as in the modern surnames, ' Black ', ' Brown '. It belongs to a class of tags 
which cover all sorts of men by the coupling of two adjectives of opposite 
meaning: arwe and kene, 2 115 ; clad ne naked, 2889 ; fre and fewe, 
262, 2205; heye and lowe, 958, 1324, 2142, 2431, 2471, 2767, 2945; 
lef and loth, 261, 440, 2313, 2379, 2775; lesse and more, 1013, 2857 ; 
litle ond mikle, 2014 ; long ne lite, 1855 ; riche and poure, 138, 237, 
2471 ; sibbe andfremde, 2277 ; stille andbolde, 955, 2309 ; stronge and 
wayke, 1012; yunge and olde, 956, 1639, I 933? 2014. 2802. 

10 1 9-2 1. Apparently ' for there was no horse-boy — though they 
should have (work) in hand — who did not come '. 

1037-8. The sense is good, the rime impossible. Kolbing, ES. 19. 
147, suggests gradden, which Holthausen accepts, though it destroys the 
alliteration stoden and stareden, and anticipates the sense of 1. 1039. 
The rime word is probably stadden, pret. plur. < ON. stefja, which, 
unless some further emendation such as the addition of [on] is admitted, 
would mean ' to look on ' ; cf. 1. 1041. Compare Cursor Mundi, 11. 204 
and 22724, Many man on stad and sey, a reading undoubtedly correct. 
The Norse word would naturally be eliminated by Southern copyists, as 
in all but the oldest MS. of Cursor. 

1042. * And was quite ignorant of (the art of) putting ' ; cf. 1. 863, 

1 05 1-2. wife : sipe. The rime word, OE. sif-e, rather supports 
Schmidt's suggestion, p. 51, that wife is ON. vida, adv., 'widely ', 'far \ 
But an extended form of wif, prep, gives much better sense. Such 
extensions are common when the preposition follows the governed 

1055-6. Sowen : lowen : a false rime since the vowel of sow en must 
be p, while lowen < OE. hlogon has 5. Holthausen reads [f]lowen, 
' they fled', which does not fit the sense. Some emendation is needed. 

1070. M.S.fe: rather the personal pronoun plural =fe(i). The form 
is usually altered to fei, as at 11. 69, 1037. But it is common in other 
texts, e. g. Robert of Brunne's Chronicle, and is probably a genuine by- 

1 101-2. shop : hok : a poor rime, perhaps due to the rareness of 
rimes for shop. Cf. 11. 1646-7; and for the phrase, 1. 424, which 
rather points to Zupitza's emendation of 1. 1100 (Anglia, 1. 471) : 
He was [pe] wers[t]e Sathanas. 

no3ff. The French romance differs here very considerably from the 
English, as may be seen from the summary, Introduction, p. xiiL 

LINES 987-1338 TI3 

1 105-6. Read bringen, or ringe. 

1 1 12. For the MS. reading, see note to 11. 176-7. 

1 1 29. Stratmann, ES. 1. 424, points out that the MS. may be read 
yas, and since/" and s are often confused, yaf her ille should stand in the 
text; cf. 1. 164 and note, 

1 174. l He gave them to her and she took them ' ; see note to 1. 970. 

1 1 77-8. clerk : Yerk. The form Yerk has not been explained. 

1 183. Read mouhte. 

1207-8. Perhaps here read come : nome < OE. comon : nomon ; but 
the neme forms are too common to admit of this as a general 

1211. Cf. 1. 2252. 

12 17. For MS. on lyue read lyue, infin. ; see note to 11. 300-1. 

1247 ff. The voice of the angel is completely an invention of the 
English author, and the dream (which is transferred from Argentille to 
Havelok) is altogether different in its detail. — M. 

1257. The line is pointless and unnatural. Perhaps read pan, l when ', 
for pat. 

1273. The MS. contains the bad correction shalpu, from shaltu. 

T287. Literally 'on one the greatest hill', a not uncommon idiom. 

1290. werd = werld with assimilation of trilled rl.~ The form is 
particularly common in Northern texts. See Glossary. 

1 291-2. Read lowe : owe or lawe : awe. 

1298. The MS. haue can stand (a) as a spelling for awe; or (5) = 
have, since such rimes occur elsewhere ; see note to 11. 949-50. 

1303-4. Hohmann emends the rime by reading yet for ek\ cf. 
11. 1319-20. 

131 5. The absence of rime proves corruption or loss, and no satis- 
factory emendation has been suggested. 

1323. sowe, with vowel from the pret. plur. ; see note to 1. 957. 

1329. Cf. 1. 2319. 

1 331-2. doute : noute perhaps points to lengthening of u in open 
syllables, so that OE. hn&tu > {Ji)mite. For the literature on this much 
disputed point, see Jespersen, Modern English Grammar, i. § 4.212. 

l 335- Cf. 1. 2592, which points to rape infin. < ON. rdda, not the 
adverb from OE. hrade. 

1336-8. A very difficult passage. In the text 1. 1336 follows Zupitza's 
emendation, Anglia, 1. 471 f. : ' let us both go to Denmark' ; but although 
Zupitza quotes an example from Genesis and Exodus, 1. 1775, there are 
objections to assuming the nominative dual so late, and with the inverted 
subject we should expect nime not nimen. Holthausen, following 
Wittenbrinck, p. 11, reads nim me withpe to Denema[f\k rape\ and it 
may be noted that the MS. has witl for with in 1. 1165. Kolbing, ES. 
1 6. 303, proposes nime we swipe to Denema\f\k bape, based on 1. 2600. 

114 NOTES 

The advantage of Zupitza's reading is that it gives a reason for corrup- 
tion. Lith has never been satisfactorily explained. 1. 1352 shows that 
the meaning must be something like ' speed', so that Holthausen's 
hith<OE. htgd, ' haste % is a good suggestion. The word is not 
uncommon in ME., and line initials are particularly liable to confusion. 

1376. Disyllabic scansion oi late allows \nie~\ to be dispensed with. 

1377. MS. pat . . . peroffe, 'whereof, may perhaps stand. 
1397-8. name : rauen ; cf. 11. 2528-9 grauen iname. Hence the 

original must have had nauen < ON. nafn, a word otherwise unrecorded 
in ME. Since the sense was obvious, English scribes substituted the 
English equivalent, spoiling the rime. See Sisam in Archiv, 128. 196-7. 

1 40 1 -2. A scribe has substituted shewe for skawe (showe), and then 
knawe {knowe) has been wrongly altered to make a rime; cf. 11. 1853, 
2056; and for the phrasing 11. 2206-7. 

1405. i.e. the day he died, for on that day he was both alive and 
dead; cf. 1. 2210 and the note to 11. 256-7. 

1431-4- Cf - 2236-9. 

1445-1624. The French text helps but little to supply the blank. It 
shows that Havelok and his wife sailed to Denmark, and, on their 
arrival, sought out the castle belonging to Sigar, who answers to the 
Ubbe of the English version [Skeat], 

1664. of 'hire , ' on her account'. 

1674. The rime, and the extensive alteration, are objections to quath, 
and the MS. may be read : Hwanne he hauede his wille yat with 
Stratmann, ES. 1. 424. Stratmann explains yat as participle of OE. 
geatan, t to grant ', which derives from 0^.jdta,jdtta. Translate 'when 
he (Havelok) had assented to his (Ubbe's) wish'. 

1680-1. For the restoration of the rime see note to 11. 360-1. 

1698-9. On shewe : lowe see Introduction, § 19. 

1720. The MS. has is wimman. It is simpler to read \n\is wimman i 
deleting \non\ ; see note to 11. 176-7. 

1733. bidde i nouht dwelle\ cf. 1. 2530. 

1734-5. lenge : genge. Since genge is < ON. gengi, lenge is presum- 
ably from ON. lengja, not OE. lengan ; and so at 1. 2363. 

1749. Observe the genitive/*? greyues, c the greave's house*. As the 
rime shows, greyue is < ON. greifi, quite distinct from OE. gerefa. In 
the French the greyve does not appear in the story. 

1763. Fr. chiche has a later form chinche, which a scribe has substi- 
tuted in the MS. here and at 1. 2941, destroying the rime. 

1 775. big-, rig. The word must be ON. hrygg-r, 'back', not OE. 

1782-3. open : drepen. There is no alternative to open, and dropen 
cannot be infinitive. Holthausen reads shut be dropen. Hupe's sug- 
gestion, Anglia, 13. 199, ich shal [haue\ dropen^ seems preferable. 

LINES 1376-2005 115 

1799. Zupitza, Anglia, 7. 150 f., reads nou for you — an improvement. 
Professor Napier suggests that you[r] , = ' of you ', would be simpler. 

1806. Hauelok lifte up, &c. In the French, all the amusing details 
relative to Robert and Huwe Raven are omitted, and Havelok is made 
to retire to a monastery, where he defends himself by throwing down the 
stones on his assailants. — M. 

1806-7. Cf. 11. 1968-9. 

18 1 9. spende : for the possibility of reading speu, ' vomited ', with the 
MS., see Sisam, Archiv, 128. 197. 

1824-5. feld : swerd, a bad rime, which is left isolated by the emen- 
dation of 1. 2635 ; but no convincing emendation has been proposed. 

1834. bi-halue, ' surround', as the synonyms, 1. 1842 vmbzyeden, 
1. 1875 umbistode indicate. See Genesis and Exodus, 1. 3355 : 
Harde he bi-haluen der Moyses. 

1853. shewe < OE. scdawian ; read showe (shawe) < OE. scedwian, 
and see note to 11. 1401-2. 

1882. eyfer unker^ ( each of you two '. In early ME. the 1st and 2nd 
person dual sometimes fall together under the form of the 1st person. 

1914-5. ' A curse on him who cares ! for they deserved it. What was 
their business there? They were mauled'. Observe the rime, which 
shows that werewed is, disyllabic, as in 1. 192 1. 

1916. bet, an unusual form of the participle with short vowel as the 
rime shows. Such weak formations followed the analogy of lede, ledde 
mete, mette, &c, where the vowel of the preterite and participle was 
normally shortened before a double consonant. See note to 1. 2338. 

191 7. The reading gives no sense. Holthausen reads her nes[es], 
'their noses', comparing for the meaning 11. 2405-6. Perhaps it is 
another of the Norse phrases so common in the poem. In Laxdaela 
Saga, chap, xiii, Melkorka, becoming enraged with Jorunn, setti hnefann 
a nasar henni. 

1930-1. Cf. 11.* 2096-7. 

1932. Literally ' what this strife has in meaning'. For the phrase as 
emended by Holthausen (Anglia, Beiblatt, 11. 306), see Genesis and 
Exodus, 11. 1944, 2727. 

1962-3. Read waive or sowe. 

1974. < had it not been for him ' ; cf. 11. 2413, 2677. 

1976. sinne, 'pity', and so at 11. 2375, 2627. 

1983. Here and in 1. 2409 the insertion of [him] with Holthausen 
injures the sense. In the one case the hero Havelok, in the other the 
traitor Godard is concerned ; and the phrases refer to the speaker's 
or the writer's sympathies, not to the extent of the wounds. Render 
' that >s a great pity ', and cf. 11. 1976, 2006. 

2005. keptK. ON. keypt-r, partic. of kaupa, 'to buy \ ME. coupein). 
See New Eng. Diet. sv. Keft. 

I 2 


2008-9. soth : oth. The rime of soth < OE. sop with oth < OE. dp 
indicates corruption, despite Kolbing, ES. 16. 301. The extraordinary- 
phrase i ne lepe oth fixes the corruption in the second line. And since 
soth has remarkably few rime words, I suggest a reading which at first 
glance seems far-fetched. Read i ne leye \o~\ [t]oth, ' I do not lie from 
my teeth \ Cf. Cursor, 1 3940-1 (Cotton MS.) : 

Quat sum yee knau wite yee for soth 
Sal yee na leis here o mi toth. 
The repetition of leye is stylistically good. 

2029. pat is naturally dative, as in 1. 727 : i to whom the name was \ 
2036-7. This line can hardly stand ; cf. 1. 907. If the original had : 
' Wei is set Ipe mete he etes : ' 
Quoth Ubbe c gos, him swif>e fetes' ; 
with two parallel imperatives, then the easy confusion dos for gos would 
cause fetes to be turned into an infinitive, and the preceding line to be 
mangled for the sake of the rime. The phrase go fetch is a common 
one, and the confusion d and g is frequent in MSS. 

2045. For MS. Kaym uninflected cf. Cursor, 1. 1202 Kaym kin\ 
1. 1 1 14 Cairn dede, &c. 

2056. shewed, ' examined % but read the alternative form shawed; cf. 
note to 11. 1401-2. 

2057. hnawed must not be altered to knawen, which does not rime. 
Such weak forms are common in ME. ; cf. Cursor, 11. 1162-1, knaud : 

2082. A rof 'one roof, the unemphatic for the emphatic form of 
OE. an. 

2092. Aboute the middel, &c. In the French, a person is placed by 
the seneschal to watch, who first discovers the light. — M. 

2106. i.e. ' peeped in through a chink \ 

2142-3. Read lowe : sowe, or lawe : sawe. 

2143. Read kunmerk (?) ; cf. 1. 604. For the vowel cf. 1. 2318 cunn- 
riche, 2400 kunerike, 2804 kunerike. In the forthcoming number of 
Modern Language Review, Professor Napier points out that these forms 
are quite isolated, and therefore cannot be explained as examples of 
South-western u for y. They are due to analogy of ON. kunung, 
1 king ', the form usual in England. 

2150-2. Cf. 11. 2296-8. 

2165. blakne would presumably mean ' look black', *be wroth', but 
Professor Napier points out that the context would be better suited by the 
meaning ' turn pale ' from bide, ' white >. See New Eng. Diet. s.v. Bloke, v. 

2228-9. Cf. 11. 504-6. The addition \_po] is doubtful, though some- 
thing is required. Perhaps read he [self], drop, pret. sing., is difficult 
to explain, but the vowel is perhaps due to the past participle dropen. 

2264. [he\ : perhaps MS. it may stand ; ef. note to 1. 644. 

LINES 2008-2416 117 

2269-70. Cf. 11. 2853-4, and *• 2 55« 

2282-3. Read -ande : -ande ; or -inde : -sWtf. 

2320. A small h in the margin here is the signal for a coloured initial 
which the miniator has missed. Hence a new paragraph should begin 
with \H~\wan. 

2333. ' how excitement increased' ; grim refers to the fury and noise 
of the bear-baiting, &c. Kolbing, ES. 19. 148, compares Beves MS. 
A, 1. 1880, pus beginne]) grim to growe. In his copy, Professor Skeat 
notes another example communicated by Dr. Bradley : Castell of 
Perseverance, 1. 226, grym per schal growe. Cf. also 1. 2975, zuordes ne 
greive. . 

2338. The MS. reading : I ne wore nouth peroffe croud 'is satisfactory 
(see note to 1. 746), except in the last word which must rime with god. 
Skeat explains, c I should never be thereby overburdened', taking crod 
as participle of crudan, l to crowd \ Obviously troud, e believed ', 
which is hardly distinguishable in script, would make excellent sense, 
were it not for the rime with o ; and inquiry at the Oxford Dictionary 
for records of short forms elicited a decisive parallel from Robert of 
Brunne's Chronicle, p. 339. 

Blissed be pou God, J>at J>ou in erth cam 
pi word is wele trod, I say it bi William. 

The form clearly belongs to tro, 1. 2862, Old East Scandinavian trda, 
and the shortening is probably an English development parallel to shoe, 
shod, and in no way connected with modern Scandinavian shortening. 
Cf. note to 1. 19 16. A scribe has substituted the corresponding form of 

2352. ilker, ' each of them ' ; OE. ylc heora. 

2353. 'by day and night', adverbial genitive singulars, as is shown 
by the form ; OE. gen. sing, dseges > dayes, but OE. plur. dagas > 
dawes usually, as in 11. 27, 2344, 2950. 

2355. we ? ° b° n i 'well prepared', 'well equipped'. Dr. Craigie 
points out to me that the correct explanation of this phrase was first 
given by Madden in his LaBamon, viz. that it is Old East Scandinavian 
boenn, partic. ' prepared ', the form corresponding to North-west Scandi- 
navian btHinn, which yields ME. boun{d). The rimes here, and in 
11. 2571, 2505, 2525, prove the close vowel. 

2384 ff. The French story here differs wholly from the English. 
Instead of the encounter of Robert and Godard, and the cruel punish- 
ment inflicted on the latter, in the French is a regular battle between 
the forces of Havelok and Hodulf (Godard). A single combat takes 
place between the two leaders, in which Hodulf is slain. — M. 

2392. fiat . . . he — who; see note to 11. 26-7. 

2409. ' That was nothing to grieve about ' ; see note to 1. 1983. 

2416. Read Jledde, 



2432. euerilkfot of hem, l every one of them' ; cf. Katherine, 1. 2273, 
he het . . . bihefden ham euchfot ; and the phrase 'head of cattle \ 

2433. 'whom they flayed ' (subsequently). 

2441. Literally, 'the bonds were not to seek' (ON. leitd), i.e. they 
were freely used. 

2450. went is rather past participle as in 1. 2138, than preterite. 

2461. Madden, LaBamon, vol. iii. p. 302, quotes De vielz peche novele 
plate from Wace [Skeat]. 

2496. See an ingenious suggestion by Littlehales in Trans. Phil. Soc, 
1903-4, p. 161 f. He proposes to read goime for grim ; so that goune or 
gore means ' gown or garment ', and refers to the stripping off of the 
skin as if it were a garment. From the purely linguistic point of view 
the emendation is a happy one. It removes the only- case where the 
rimes seem to show lengthening of in open syllables, an assumption 
the more difficult because the lengthening conditions do not obtain in 
the nominative gor, ' filth V The addition of an inorganic e in gore is a 
further difficulty removed if gore be taken as — OE. gdra. 

2519. Here Havelok's journey to England is lost. No doubt a column 
or a page was dropped by the copyist, or one of his predecessors. The 
French, with Skeat' s rendering, runs : 
Quant Haueloc est rois pussanz, When Havelok is a mighty king, 

Le regne tint plus de .iiii. anz ; 
Merueillous tresor i auna. 
Argentille li comanda 
Qu'il passast en Engleterre 
Pur son heritage conquerre, 
Dont son oncle Tout engettee, 
[Et] A grant tort desheritee. 
Li rois li dist qu'il fera 
Ceo qu'ele li comandera. 
Sa nauie fet a-turner, 
Ses genz & ses ostz mander. 
En mier se met quant orre a, 
Et la reyne od lui mena. 
Quatre vinz & quatre cenz 
Out Haueloc, pleines de genz. 
Tant out nage & sigle, 
Q'en Carleflure est ariue. 
Sur le hauene se herbergerent, 
Par le pais viande quierent. 
Puis enuoia li noble rois, 
Par le consail de ses Danois, 
A Alsi qu'il li rendist 

He reigned more than four years, 
Marvellous treasure he amassed. 
Argentille (Goldborough) bade him 
Pass into England 
To conquer her heritage, 
Whence her uncle had cast her out, 
And very wrongly disinherited her. 
The king told her that he would do 
That which she will command him. 
He got ready his fleet, 
And sent for his men and his hosts. 
He puts to sea when he has a wind, 
And took the queen with him. 
Four score and four hundred (ships) 
Had Havelok, full of men. 
So far has he steered and sailed 
That he has arrived at Carleflure. 
Hard by the haven they abode, 
And sought food in the country round. 
Then sent the noble king, 
By the advice of his Danes, 
To Alsi (Godrich) — that he should 
restore to him 

LINES 2432-2659 119 

La terre qe tint Ekenbright, The land that Ekenbright (Athelwold) 

Q'a sa niece fut donee, Which was given to his niece, 

Dont il Tout desheritee ; And of which he had deprived her. 

Et, si rendre n'el voleit, And, if he would not give it up, 

Mande qu'il le purchaceroit. He sends word that he will take it. 

The remainder of the French poem altogether differs in its detail from 
the English. 

2521-3. If the poet had an actual priory in mind, it was probably 
Grimsby (or Wei low) Abbey, a house of Black (Austin) Canons. 
Madden thought rather of the Austin Friary founded at Grimsby in 
1280 (?) (see Introd. § 14); but a story-teller would hardly strain the 
credulity of his audience by such a distortion of an event within their 
own memory. Grimsby Abbey was dedicated to St. Olaf. 

2526-7. oth : wot. The MS. spelling oth : woth and the false rime 
show that oth is not, as has hitherto been supposed, the word 'oath', 
but stands for ot — (h)pt < OE. hat, l a promise \ 

2528-9. grauen : name ; see note to 11. 1397-8. 

2548. On MS. bidde for bede see note to 1. 484. 

2557. MS. ye beber, with be dotted for erasure. Holthausen reads 
grey)ed, 'made ready', but neither emendation is convincing. Perhaps 
read^£ bere or he here, ' (which) they bore '. 

2563. For the MS. reading see note to 11. 176-7. 

2567. [at~]-sat; cf. 1. 2200; but MS. sat, ' opposed ', is correct. 

2582-3. Holthausen transposes these lines, with some gain; cf. 
11. 41-2. 

2584-5. Read bo}e : rofie ; see note to 11. 360-1. 

2588. The MS. reading can stand, but perhaps slo is miswritten for 
flo, ' flay ' ; cf. 1. 612. The phrase withyfo is very common, and slawen 
ioxflawen occurs in the MS. at 1. 2476, owing to the likeness in form of 
/and/; cf. MS. in 11. 1427^; 2289 }hes ; 2442/7. 

2634-5. fete ' swerd. The cutting off of the left arm with the shield it 
bears is often referred to in the Romances, e.g. Roland and Vernagu, 
11. 823-4 : 

J>e left arm and J?e scheld 

Fel for> into )>e feld. (Kblbing, ES. 16. 302.) 

Hence Madden's suggestion with J>e scheld for with pe swerd can 
hardly be denied. 

2658-9. bofen : drowen. The rime is false both in consonant and 
vowel, for bofien has p, drowen o. But the sense is much superior to that 
given by Holthausen's reading \_he] lowen, 'they laughed', for bofen. 
Some emendation is necessary, but none so far proposed seems satis- 

120 NOTES, LINES 2676-2970 

2676-7. slawen : Rauen; see note to 11. 949-50. 

2687. hul, 'hollow', in the MS. altered from kill. The vowel u 
seems to be proved by the rime. The form huh occurs in Morris, OE. 
Misc., p. 8, 1. 253. It is perhaps O. East Norse huh 

2688. tarst = to arst according to Kolbing, ES. 16. 303, but New Eng. 
Diet. sv. erst, prefers the explanation in the foot-note, since the form to erst 
seems unknown. But in view of the difficulty of explaining loss of a- , 
it would perhaps be better to read [_d\t arst. 

2690. In support of the emendation of leuin, l lightning ', to leun, 
note that in the Lai d'Havelok Hodulf and Havelok attack each other 
come leon (1. 960). 

2691. neuere kines : a curious phrase for none kines. 

2698. felden (MS. feldeni), a weak preterite form of fall. See 
New Eng. Diet. On the rime^r^ : is, see Introd. p. xxix. 

2700-1. brittene : littene, infinitives, the first < OE. brytnian, the 
second probably a new formation which would correspond to OE. 
*lytnian, ' to lessen '. 

2719. Zupitza, Anglia, 7. 155, suggests }i dede, and Professor Skeat 
would also readjfo* wrathe. Holthausen prefers mi deole, ' my sorrow'. 

2766. pan, ' when '. 

2783. for hem, ' before them ', as in 1. 2947/^r his barnage. 

2784, shawe in its early meaning, synonymous with se. 
2880. No addition is needed. For the idiom see Glossary. 

2933. From the appearance of part of 1. 2954 after 1. 2933, Zupitza, 
Anglia, 7. 155, suggested that the scribe was copying from a MS. with 
twenty lines to the page, and slipped a page. The MS. shows that 
1. 2953 was also copied here, and then altered to 1. 2933. 

2936. Read bape, since rathe is < OE. hrdfe. 

2944. [alle~] is not necessary, for corune is naturally trisyllabic as in 
1. 1319. 

2944-5. Read sawe : lawe, or sowe : lowe. 

2956-7. anon : lohan; see note to 11. 176-7* 

2960. gete, < watch ' < ON. gseta, as in 1. 2762. 

2966. J>at . . . hem bitwene — 'between whom' ; see note to 11. 26-7. 

2970. o}er, MS. o$e. Perhaps read owe\r], ' anywhere', for OE. J> 
and j> are confused in the MS. See a similar case in Cursor (Cotton 
MS.), 1. 1 1 544- lfatoJ>er . . . ne, 'either . . . or', is grammatically 


The Glossary is now adapted to the normalized text ; but interesting 
MS. forms are indicated, and the references, taken in conjunction with 
the foot-notes, provide a full index to the spellings. In the Text the 
commonest fluctuations in form or spelling are a: o (p. xxix) ; anion; 
i:y, u:o (p. xl) ; u : ou (p. xl) ; u\w (p. xxxix) ; ei : ey : ai ': ay; c\k; 
hw : qu (p. xl) ; sch : sk; th \ p ; and cross references are not always 
given. Many words and phrases are now added, which, though easily 
intelligible, are worth recording in a text so early; and except in 
references, completeness is aimed at. Except for special reasons, only 
verb tense forms are parsed, because the inflexion of nouns and adjectives 
presents no difficulty. Brief etymological indications are added, with 
references in difficult cases to the Oxford English Dictionary (N.E.D.). 

L. = Latin. 

OE. = Old English, especially Anglian. 

O.Fr. = 01d French, especially the French current in England. 
OHG. = Old High German. 
OLG. = Old Low German. 
ON. = Old Norse, especially Icelandic ; but O.Dan. = Old Danish, and 

O.Sw. = Old Swedish are sometimes specified, 
prec. = preceding word. 

* before a form or reference indicates reconstruction, 
cf. in etymologies indicates indirect or uncertain relation. 
+ shows that a compound first appears in Middle English. 

A, An(e), indef. art. 7, 14, 21, 
114, 722, &c. ; one, a single, 
2010, 2082. [OE. an.'] See On. 

Abide, v. remain, wait, 1797. 
[OE. onbidan, dbzdan.~] 

Abouen, prep, above, higher 
than, 1700. [OE. onbufan^ 

Aboute(n), Abuten, prep. 
about, 521, 670, 1010, 2429. 
[OE. onbutan.~\ 

Adoun, Adune, adv. down, 567, 
2 735* [OE. of-dune.} See Doun. 

Adrad (MS. Odrat, 1153), pp. 
afraid, 278, 1048, 1163, 1682, 
2304; Adradde, pL 1787; A- 

dred, pp. 1258. [OE. ofdrizdd, of- 
dredd, pp.] 

Adred. See Adrad. 

After, prep, after, 171, &c. ; ac- 
cording as, 2810; senden after, 
to send for, 137, 138, 524. [OE. 

Ageyn, Agen, Ayen, prep. 
against, 272, 489, 569, 12 10, 
1792, 2024, 2799, &c. ; to meet 
(with verbs of motion), 451, 934, 
1207, 1696; to receive, 1106; 
exposed to (of light), 1809, 2 141. 
[OE. ongen^ ongegnf] 

Ageyn, adv. again, 493/2426. 

J 22 


Ageynes, prep, against, 2153, 
2 2 70. \ageyn + adverbial es. ] 

Al, adj. all, 35, 264, 277, &c. ; 
every one, 104; Alle, pi. 2, 16, 
37, 150, &c. [OE. all.] 

Al, adv. wholly, entirely, 34, 70, 
139, 203, &c. ; in combination 
with To- {see To-), 1948, 1993, 
2001, 2021, 2667. [OE. all.] 

Ale, n. ale, 14, 1244, 1731. [OE. 

Alias, inter j. alas, 1878. [O.Fr. 

Almest, adv. almost, 962. [OE. 
almsest.] See Mest(e). 

Als, Also, Al-so, conj. as, like, 
so, 306, 319, &c. ; as if, 1912, 
&c. [OE. al-swa.] 

AlJ>er-best(e), adj. best of all, 
1040, 2415 ; adv. 182, 720, 1 197. 
[OE. alra betst, with epenthesis of 
d, and fluctuation dr :pr.] 

Alper-leste, adj. least of all, 
1978, 2666. [OE. alra Isesta.] See 

Al to, Alto-. See Al and To-. 

Am, 1 sg. pres. indie, am, 167, 
&c. See Art, Is, Ben. [OE. am.] 

Amideward, prep, in the middle 
of, 872. [OE. on middewardan.] 

And (MS. An commonly ; Ant, 
36, 557), conj. and, 4, 15, &c. ; 
if, 2862. [OE. and.'] 

Andelong, adv. lengthways, i.e. 
from the tail to the head, 2822. 
[OE. andlang.] 

Ane. See On, adj. 

Angel, Aungel, n. angel, 1276, 
1 2 8 1 . [O.Fr. angels aungel.] 

Ani, adj. and pron. any, 10, 26, 
105, 1083, &c. [OE. senig.] 

Anker, n. anchor, 521, 670. 
[OE. ancor.] 

Anlepi, Onlepi, adj. a single, 
1094, 2107. [OE. dnlepig.] 

Anon, An-on, Onon, adv. at 
once, 136, 176, 447, 523, 1964, 
2790, &c. [OE. on an.] 

AnolpeT, adj. another, 1304; adv. 

otherwise, r 395. [OE. dn + of>er.] 

Answerede, pa. t. sg. answered, 
in 1, 1313; Ansuereden, pa, t. 
pi. I 76. [OE. andstuerian.] 

Anuye, v. to weary, 1735. [O.Fr. 

Are-dawes, n. pi. former days, 
27. [ON. dr-dagar.] See Or. 

Aren, pres. indie, pi. are, 161, 
464, 619, 1321, 1349. [OE. 
(Nth.) aron.] See Art, Is. 

Arise, v. to arise, 205. [OE. 

Arke, n. chest, coffer, 222, 2018. 
[OE. arc < L. area.] 

Arm, Arum, n. arm (of the 
body), 1982, 2408, 2635; pi. 984, 
1294, 1297, 1300. [OE. earm.] 

Armes, n. pi. arms, armour, 
2605, 2613, 2925. [O.Fr. armes.] 

Art, 2 sg.pres. indie, art, 527, &c. 
See Are, Am, Is, Ben. [OE. eart.] 

Arum. See Arm. 

Arwe, adj. pi. cowardly, timid, 
21 15. [OE. earg.] 

Asayleden, pa. t. pi. assailed, 
1862. [O.Fr. asaillir.] 

Aske, v. to ask, 2952. [OE. 

Asken, n. pi. ashes, 2841. [ON. 

Asse, n. ass, 2821, 2839. [OE. 

Astirte, pa, t. sg. leaped, 893. 
See Stirte. 

At, prep, at, 9, 789, 822, &c. ; 
at a dint, with one blow, 1807 > 
tok hue at, took leave of, 1387, 
138S, 1389; ney at, near to, 2619. 
[OE. set."] 

Atsitte, v. to oppose, 2200; 
*Atsat (MS. Sat), pa. t. sg. 2567, 
but see Note. [OE. aetsittan.] 

A-two, On-two, On to, in two, 
471,1413,1823,2643. \_OE.on + 

Auhte. See Awe, v. 

Auhte, n. possessions, 531, 1223 
141 o, 2215. [OE. sekt.] 



Aungel. See Angel. 

Aunlaz, n. a short dagger worn 
at the girdle, 2554. See Cant. 
Tales, Prol., 357. [O.Fr. *aunlas.] 

Auter, n. altar, 389, 1386, 2373. 
[O.Fr. auter.'] 

Awe, n. awe, 277 (see Note). 
[ON. agi.] 

Awe, v. to possess, 11 88, ^1298 ; 
Auht(e), pa. t. sg. ought, 207, 
743, &c; possessed, 2173, 2787, 
2800, &c. [OE. dgan.] 

Awey, adv. away, 1390, 1677. 
[OE. onweg.] 

Ax, n. axe, 1776, 1894. [OE. 


Ay, adv. ever, always, 159, 946, 
1 201, &c. [ON. ei.~\ 

Ayen. See Ageyn. 

Ayse, n. ease, peace, 59. [O.Fr. 

Ay per, *Eyper, fir on. either, 
each, 1882, 2665. [OE. segfier.] 
See OJ»er. 

Bac, n. back, 47, 556, 1844, 
1950, &c. ; Backes, fil. 261 1. 
[OE. bmc] 

Baldelike, adv. boldly, 53. [OE. 
baldlice.] See Bold. 

Bale, n. misery, 327. [OE. 

Bar. See Beren. 

Baret, n. strife, brawl, 1932. 
[O.Fr. barat.] 

Barfot, adj. barefoot, 862. [OE. 

Barnage, n. baronage, nobles 
collectively, 2947. [O.Fr. barn- 

Barre, n. bar of a door, 1794, 
181 1, 1827. [O.Fr. barre.] 

Barun, n. baron, 31, 138, 273, 
&c. [O.Fr. barun?] 

Barw. See Berwen. 

Bape, Bope, adj. both, 1336, 
2543; Bepe, 360, 694, 1680 {see 
Note to 1. 360) ; Bopen, 173, 471, 
697, 958, 2223. [ON. b&bi-r.] 

Be. See Ben. 

Bebedde, 421, see Note. 

Bed, n. bed, 658, &c. ; Bedde, 
dat. sg. 1 1 14. [OE. bedd.] 

Bedden, v. to bed, to put to 
bed, *42i, 1128, 1235, 2771. [OE. 

Bede, n. prayer, 1385. [OE. 

Bede, v. to order, summon, offer, 
1665, 2084, 2172, 2193, 2392, 
*2548; Bede, 2 sg. pa. t. 668, 
2396; Beden, pa. t. fil. 2774, 
2780. Here belongs in sense 
Biddi = Bidde i, I offer, 484, due 
to form confusion with Bidden ; 
cf. MS. in 2548. [OE. beodan.] 

Bedels, n. pi. beadles, 266. 
[O.Fr. bedel, OE. bydel.] 

Beite, Beyte, v. to bait (of 
dogs), to cause to bite, 1840, 2330, 
2440. [ON. beita] 

Belles, n. pi. bells, 242, 390, 
1 106. [OE. belle.] 

Ben, v. to be, remain, 19, 905, 
1006, &c. ; Bes, Reth.,fut. 1260, 
1 261, 1744, 2007 ; Bes, 
2 246 ; Be, pres. subj. sg. 1 24, &c. ; 
Ben, pres. subj. fil. 1787, 2599; 
Be(n), pp. 1428, 2799, &c. Late 
be, relinquish, cease from, 1265, 
1657. For remaining tenses see 
Am, Art, Is, Es, Was, Wore. 
[OE. beon.] 

Benes, n. pi. beans, 769. [OE. 

Beneysun, n. blessing, benedic- 
tion, 1723. [O.Fr. beneisun.] 

Berd, n. beard, 701. [OE. 

Bere, n. bear, 573, 1838, 1840, 
2448. [OE. bera\] 

Bere(n), v. to bear, give birth 
to, carry, 378, 581, 762, 805, 
2323, &c; Bar, pa. t. sg. 557, 
815, 877; Bore, pa. t. sg. 45; 
Bere, pa. t. subj. sg. 974; Bo- 
r(e)n, pp. 461, 1878; *Y*-boren, 
pp. 2557 {see Note); beren god 



fey, to keep or display good faith, 
255, &c. £OE. beran.] 

Bermen, n. pi. bearers, porters, 
868, 876, 885, 887. [OE. ber- 

Bern, ?z. child, 571. [OE.bearnJ] 
See Kradel-barnes. 

Berwen, v. to protect, save, 697, 
1426, ^2870; Barw, pa. t. sg. 
2022, 2679. [OE. bergan.~\ 

Bes. See Ben. 

Best(e), adj. superl. best, 87, 
200, &c. ; adv. 376 ; he best wolde 
liuen, he most desired to live, 354. 
[OE. betst.] See God, Betere. 

Best, Beste, n. beast, 279, 574, 
944, 2691. [O.Fr. beste.'] 

Bete, v. to beat, strike, 1899, 
2664, 2763; Beten, pa. t. pi. 1876; 
Bet, pp. 1916 (see Note).. [OE. 
beat an.] 

Betere, adv. comp. better, 109, 
696, 1758. [OE. betera, adj.] 

Bepe. See BaJ>e. 

Beye, Byen, v. to buy, 53, 1625, 
1654; Beyes, 3 s g- pres. indie. 
pays dearly for (for the sense see 
Coupe); Bouhte, pa. t. sg. 875, 
968, 969, &c. Bouht, pp. 883. 
[OE. bycgan.~\ 

Bi, prep, by, beside, 474, 618, 
882, 2211, &c. ; bi are-dawes, 
in former days, 27. [OE. be, bf.] 

Bieomen, v. to become : Bi- 
comes, 2303; Bicam, 
pa. t. sg. 2254; Bieomen, pa. t. 
pi. 2257; Bieomen, pp, 2264. 
[OE. becuman.] 

Bidden, v. to ask, ask leave, 
command, 529, 910, 1232, 1733, 
2530; Bad, pa. t. sg. 165, 399, 
934. For Biddi, 484, MS. Bidde, 
2548, see Bede, with which there 
is early confusion. [OE. biddan.] 

Bidene, adv. forthwith, 730, 
2841. [See N.E.D.] 

Bifalle, v. impers. to happen, 
befall, 2981. Bifel(le), pa. t. sg. 
339, 824. [OE. befallan.] 

Biforn, Bifore(n), Bifor, prep. 
before, in front of, 157, 246, 1022, 
io 34> x 357> 1364, 1695, &c. ; bi- 
for pe heued, in the face, 18 12; 
cf. 2406. [OE. beforan.] 

Big, adj. big, 1774. [Probably 

Biginnen, v. to begin (the pa. t. 
with an infinitive has often the 
sense of a simple preterite; cf. 
Gan), 21, 1779; Bigan, pa. t. 
sg. 230, 825, 1357 ; Bigunnen, 1011, 1302. [OE,. begin- 

Biginning, ^.'beginning, 13. 
[To prec] 

Bihalue, v. surround, 1834. 
[OE. *behalfian.] 

Biheld, pa. t. sg. beheld, 1645, 
pa. 2148. [OE. behaldan.] 

Bihoten, v. to promise; Bihetet 
(for bihete if), 2 pa. t. sg. 677 ; 
Bihoten,//. 564. [OE. behdtan.] 

Bihoue, n. dat. behoof, advan- 
tage, 1764. [OE. behof] 

*Bihoues (MS. Houes), 3 sg. 
pres. indie, behoves, is incumbent 
upon, 582. See Houes. [OE. 
behof an.] 

Bikenneth, 3 sg. pres. indic % 
makes known, betokens, 1268, 
1269. [OE. be + cennan.] 

Bi-leue, v. remain; Bi-leue, 
imper. sg. 1 2 28 ; Bilefte, pa. t. sg. 
2963. [OE. belafan.] 

Bimene, v. mean, 1259. [OE. 
be + msenan.] See Mone. 

Binde(n), Bynde, v. to bind, 
41, 1961, 2820; Bond, pa. t. sg. 
537 ; Bounden, Bunden, pa. t. 
pi. 2442 ; Bounden, Bunde(n), 
pp. 545, 1428, 2377. [OE. bin- 
dan^ See Bynderes. 

Binne, adv. within, 584. [OE. 

Birde. See Birj?. 

Birp, v. i?npers. 3 sg. pres. it 
behoves, 2101; Birde, pa. t. sg. 
2761. [OE. (ge)byrian.] 



Birpene, n. burden, 807, 900, 
902. [OE. byrpen.] 

Bise, n. north wind, 724. [O.Fr. 

Biseken, v. to beseech, 2994. 
[OE. be + secant] 

Bisoupe, on the south side 
of, 2828. [OE. be supan.] See 

Bi-stod,/#. t. sg. stood by, 507. 
[OE. bz-, bestandan.] Cf. Umbi- 

Bistride, v. bestride, 2060. [OE. 

Biswike, pp. betrayed, 1249. 
[OE. beswican.] 

Bitaken, z>. to deliver, give in 
charge, 1226. [be + ON. taka.] 
See Bitechen. 

Bite, v. to bite, 2440 ; to drink, 
1 731. [OE. bttan.] 

Bitechen, v. give in charge, com- 
mit to the charge, 203, 384, 395 ; 
Bitauhte, Bitaucte, Bitawhte, 
pa. t. sg. 206, 558, 1224, 1408, 
1409, 2212, 2214, 2317, 2957. 
[OE. betsecan, in ME. confused 
with Bitaken.] 

Bitwene(n), Bitwen, Bituene, 
prep, between, among, 748, 935, 
1833, 2668, 2967. [OE. betweo- 

Blac, adj. black, 48, 555, 1008, 
pi. Blake, 1909, 2181, 2249, 2521, 
2694, 2847, &c. See under Brun. 
[OE. Msec.) 

Blake, adj. white, 311. [OE. 
Mac.'] Cf. Bleike. 

Blakne, v. to darken (of the 
face), to become angry, 2165 ; or to 
become pale. See Note. [OE. 
blsBc + -nian or Mac + man.'] 

Blame, n. blame, 84, 1192, 

1672, 2460. [O.Fr. Ma(s)me.] 

Blase, n. blaze, 1254. [OE. 

Blawe, Blowe, z>. to blow, 587, 
913 ; Blow, imper. sg. 585. [OE. 

Blede, v. to bleed, 103, 2403. 
[OE. bledan.] 

Bleike, pale, white, 470. 
[ON. bleik-r.] 

Blenkes, n. pi. : Menkes maken, 
to play tricks, 307. [Cf. OE. vb. 
blencan, to deceive.] 

Blessed,/^, blessed, 1 2 1 5. [OE. 

Blinne, v. to cease, 329, 2367, 
2374; *Blunne, pa, t. pi. 2670. 
[OE. blinnan.] 

Blisse, n, bliss, 2187, 2935. 
[OE. bliss.] 

Blissed, pp. made happy, 2873. 
[OE. blissian, blWsian.] 

Blipe, adj. happy, glad, 632, 651, 
777, 886. [OE.bltfe.] 

Blod, n. 216, 432, 1819, 1850, 
1904, &c. *SV* #/Mfer Renne. [OE. 

Blome, n. bloom, flower, 63. 
[ON. bttmi.] 

Bloute, adj. pi. soft, pulpy, 
1 910. [ON. blaut-r.] 

Bode, n. command, 2202, 5607. 
[OE. bod.] 

Bodi, n. body, 84, no, 363, 995, 
&c. [OE. bodig.] 

Bok, n. book, Bible, 201, 487, 
1173, 1418, 2217, &c, [OE. boc] 
See Messebok. 

Bold, adj. bold, 64, &c. Bolde, 
pi. 955, &c. [OE. bald.] See 

Bole, n. bull, 2330, 2438. [ON. 

Bond. See Binde(n). 1 

Bondeman, n. husbandman, 
peasant-farmer, 32, 1016, 1308. 
[ON. bondi + man.] 

Bondes, n. pi. bonds, 332, 538, 
635, &c, bonds (of pain), 143. 
[ON. band.] See Dede-bondes. 

Bone, n. boon, request, 1659. 
[ON. bdn.] 

Bon(e) in wel bon(e), 2355, 
2571, well equipped, in good 
condition; iuele bone, poorly 



equipped, in poor condition, 2505. 
[O. East Norse bdenn, pp. of bda, 
to prepare.] 

Bones, n. pi. bones, arms, 1296. 
[OE. ban,] 

Bor, n. boar, 1867, 1989, 2331. 
[OE. bar.'] 

Bord, n. a table, 99, 1722 ; a 
board, 2106 (see Note). [OE. 

Bore(n). See Bere. 

Bom, Borw, Burw, n. borough, 
town, 55, 773, 847, 1014, 1293, 
1444, 1630, 1757, 2086, 2277, 
2826. [OE. burh.] 

Borw, n. surety, 1667. [OE. 

Bote, But, adv. only, but, 721, 
722. [OE. butan.] See But(e). 

Bote, n. remedy, help, 1200. 
[OE. dot.'] 

Bope(n). See Ba}>e. 

Bouht(e). See Beye. 

B(o)unden. See Binde(n). 

Bour, Bowr, n. chamber, 239, 
2072, 2077, &c. [OE. bur.] 

Bout (MS. But), n. throw, putt, 
1040. [O.Fr. bout.] 

Bowes, n. pi. bows (weapons), 
1748. [OE. boga.] 

Boyes, n. pi. young men, men, 

Br ay d, pa. t. sg. started, awaked, 
1282 ; drew (a sword), 1825. [OE. 

Bred, n. bread, 463, 633, 643, 
1879. [OE. bread.] 

Brede, n. roast meat, 98. [OE. 

Breken, v. to break, 914 ; 
Broken, pa. t. pi. 1902, 1903 ; 
Breken, pp. 1238. [OE. brecan.] 

Brenne, n. burning ; brouht on 
brenne, made burn, 1239. [To 

Brennen, v. to burn, 916, 1162 ; 
Brenden, pa. t. pi. 594, 2125; 
Brend,//. 2832, 2841, &c. [ON. 

Brest, n. breast, chest, 1030, 
1648. [OE. breost.] 

Bride, n. bride/ 2 131. [OE. 

Brigge, n. bridge, 875, 881. 
[OE. brycg or ON. bryggja.] 

Briht, Bryht, adj. bright, fair, 
589, 605, 1252, 2131, 2610; 
Brihter, compar. 2 141. [OE. 

Brim, adj. furious, raging, 2233. 
[See N.E.D. s.v. Breme.] 

Bringe(n), v. to bring, 72, 185, 
&c. ; Brouhte, pa. t. sg. 767, 
2868; Brouhteni ^># . 2791 ; 
Brouht, Browht,^. 57, 58, 336, 
649, 1979, 2052, &c. ; to pe erpe 
brouht, buried, 248 ; brouht of 
Hue, 513, 2412, brought out of 
life, dead ; forth brouhte, fostered, 
brought up, 2868. [OE. bringan.] 

Brini(e), n. mail coat, 1775, 
2 358, 2551, 2610, 2740. [ON. 

Brisen, v. to bruise, beat, 1835. 
[OE. brysan.] See To-brised. 

Brittene, v. (as passive) to break 
to pieces, 2700. [OE. brytnian.] 

Brod, adj. broad, 1647 ; Br ode, 
pi. 896. [OE. brad.] 

Broper, n. brother, 1396, &c. ; 
Brethren,//. 2413. [OE. bropor^] 

Brouht. See Bringe(n). 

Brouke, v. enjoy, use, have, 311, 
1743, 2545. [OE. brucan.] 

Broys, n. broth, 924. [O.Fr. 

Brune, Broune, 1008, 1909, 
2181, 2249, 2694? 2847, brown, 
fair (?) ; for the phrase Make and 
brune see Note to 1. 1008. [OE. 

Bulderstone, n. boulder-stone, 
1790. [ON.; cf. Gotland dialect 

Bunden. See Binde(n). 

Burgeys, Burgeis, n. burgess, 
citizen, 1328, 2466,//. 2012, 2195. 
[O.Fr. burgeis?] 



Burgmen, n. pi. burgesses, citi- 
zens, 2049. [OE. burhman (if g 

= *).] 

Burwe. See Berwen. 

Burwes. See Boru. 

But(e), Buten, conj. except, 
unless, 85, in, 149, 690, 1 149, 
1159, 2022, 2031, 2727; but als, 
were it not that, 2022, 2031 ; but 
on pat, except only that, except that, 
505, 962 ; but-yf, but-yif, unless, 
2546,2972. [OE. butan.] .S^Bote. 

But, pp. struck, thrust, 191 6. 
[O.Fr. bouter.~] 

Butere, n. butter, 643 [OE. 

Butte, n. some flat fish ; cf. 
halibut, 759. 

Buttinge, n. thrusting, 2322. 
See But, pp. 

Byen. See Beye. 

Bynde. See Binde(n). 

Bynderes, n. pi. binders, out- 
laws who bind their victims, 2050. 
[OE. bindere.~] See Binde(n). 

Caliz, n. chalice, 187, 271 1. 
[O.Nth.Fr. caliz.'] 

Oallen, v. to call, 38, 230, 747, 
2899; K&lde, pa. t. sg. 884. [ON. 

Cam. See Komen. 

Can, &c, v. to know, to be able, 
846; MS. Cone, 2 sg. subj. 622; 
Kunne,^/. 435 ; Coupe, pa. t. sg. 

93> II2 , IQ 4> 75o ? 77 2 > &c. ; 
Koupen, pa. t. pl-^?>6g. frank 
cunnen, to be grateful, 160, 2560. 
[OE. cunnan, can (pret. pres.), 

Care, Kare, n. anxiety, 121, 
8 35> I 377> 2062. [OE. caru.~\ 

Carl, n. churl, slave, 1789. [ON. 

Carte-lode, n. cart-load, 895. 
[ON. kart-r, OE. cr&t + OE. lad.] 

Castel, n. castle, 252, 412, 1301, 
1442. [O.Nth.Fr. castel.] 

Casten. See Kesten. 

Catel, n. chattels, goods, 225, 
275, 2023, 2515, 2906, 2939. 
[O.Nth.Fr. catel.] 

Caynard (MS. Cauenard), fellow 
(term of reproach), 2389. [O.Fr. 

Cayser(e), Kay sere, n. em- 
peror, 353,977, 1317,1725. [ON. 

Cerges, Serges, n.pLwax tapers, 
594, 2125. [O.Fr. cerge.] 

Chaffare, n. merchandise, 1657. 
[OE. ceap+faru?^ 

Champioun, Chaumpioun (MS. 
Chaunbioun, 1007, Chaunpioun), 
n. champion, 1007, 1015, 103 1, 
1055. [O.Fr. champiun.] 

Chanounes, n. pi. canons, 360. 
[O.Fr. chanoun.] 

Chapmen, n. pi. merchants, 51, 
1639. [OE. ceapman.] 

Charbuele, n. carbuncle (a stone 
supposed to shine in the dark), 
2145. [O.Fr. charboucle.] 

Chartre, n. charter, deed of 
manumission, 676. [O.Fr. chartre.] 

Chaste, adj. chaste, 288. [O.Fr. 

Cherl, n. churl, thrall, servant, 
262, 620, 684, 1092, 2533. [OE. 
ceorl.] See Karl and Drit-cherl. 

Chese, n. cheese, 643. [OE. 

Chesen, v. to choose, 2T47; 
Chosen, pa. t. pi. 372. [OE. 

Chiche (MS. Chinche), ^'.nig- 
gardly, mean, 1763, 2941. [O.Fr. 
chiche, later chinche.] 

Child, n. child, 575, &c. (MS. 
Child, 532) ; Children, pi. 348, 
368, 474, &c. ; Children, gen. pi. 
499. [OE. cild.] 

Chiste, n. dat. chest, coffer, 222. 
[OE. cist.] See Kist. 

Citte (MS.), 942. See Kitte. 

Clad, &c. See Clo]?e. 

Clapte, pa. t. sg. struck, 18 14, 
1 82 1. [OE. *clappian.] 



Clare", n. a drink consisting of 
wine, honey and spices, 1728. 
[O.Fr. dare.] 

Clene, adj. pure, 995. [OE. 

Clerc, n. clerk, one in holy 
orders, 33, 77, 11 77, &c. [O.Fr. 

Cleue, n. dwelling, cottage, 557, 
596. [OE. cleofa.] 

Cleuen, v. to cleave, split, 917 ; 
Clef, pa. t. sg. 2643, 2730. [OE. 

Closede, pa. t. sg. enclosed, was 
included, 1 3 1 o. [O. Fr. clore, clos-.~\ 

Cloth, n. cloth, garment, 185, 
418,546, 855,968, 1 1 44, 1145, &c. 
(MS. Clo]?en,^/. 1233). [OE. clad.'] 

CloJ>e, v. to clothe, n 38; 
Clopede, pa, t. sg. 420 ; Cladde, 
pa. t. sg. 1354, 2907; Clad, pp. 
2889; Cloped, pp. 971. [OE. 
cladian and clseffan.] See Un- 

Clubbe, n. club, 1927, 2289. 
[ON. klubba.] 

Clutes, 7%. pi. clouts, pieces of 
cloth, 547. [OE. clut.] 

Clyueden, pa. t. pi. fastened, 
clung, 1300. [OE. clifian.] 

Cok, Kok, n. cook, 873, 880, 
891, 903, 921, 967, 1123, 1146, 
2898. [OE. coc] 

Cold, Kold, n. cold, 416, 449 ; 
cold fongen, to catch cold, 856. 
[OE. cald.] 

Comeri. See Komen. 

Cone. See Can. 

Conestable, n. constable, war- 
den, 2286, 2366. [O.Fr. cone- 

Conseyl,^. counsel, 2862. [O.Fr. 

Copes. See Kopes. 

Corporaus, n. a linen cloth on 
which the sacrament is placed at 
Mass, and in which it is wrapped 
after Mass, 188. [O.Fr. cor- 

Corune, n. crown 1319, 2944. 
[O.Fr. corune.] See Croun(e). 

Coruning, n. coronation, 2948. 
[See prec] 

Cote, n. cottage, 737, 1141. [OE. 

Couel, Cuuel, Kouel, n. cloak, 
garment, 768, 858, 964, 1144, 
2904. [OE. cufle.] 

Couere, v. to recover, 2040. 
[O.Fr. covrer.] 

Coupe, v. to buy, pay dearly for, 
1800; Keft, pp. 2005. C 0N - 
kaupa, pp. keypt-r.] 

Coupe. See Can. 

Crake. See Kraken. 
^Crauede, pa. t. sg. asked for, 
633. [OE. crafian.] 

Crepen, v. to creep, 68. [OE. 

Cri, n. call, summons ; at his cri, 
at his command, in his power, 270 ; 
at one cri y unanimously (?), with 
one voice (?), 2773. [O.Fr. cri.] 

Criee, n. the anal cleft, 2450. 
[ON. kriki.] 

Crie(n), v. to cry, implore loud- 
ly, 2443, 2772 ; Criede, pa. t. sg. 
2501. [O.Fr. crier.] 

Croiz, n. cross, 1263, 1268, 1358, 
2139, &c. [O.Fr. croiz.] 

Croud, 2338. See Note. 

Croun(e), n. crown of the head, 
568, 902, 1814, 2657, 2734. C In 
form always distinct from corune, 
which has the same etymology.] 

Crus, adj. angry, fierce, 1966. 
[ON. or OLG. krus.] 

Crusshe. See To-crusshe. 

*Cuneriche (MS. Cunnriche), 
Kunerike (also MS. Kuneriche), 
^.kingdom, 976, 2318, 2400,2804; 
cf. Note to 2143. [OE. cynerice, 
influenced by ON. kunung, see 
Note to 1. 2143.] See Kineriche. 

Cuppe, n. cup, 14. [OE. ctippe.] 

Curt, n. court, 1685. [O.Fr. 

Curteys, adj. well-bred, having 



manners fit for a court, 2916. 
[O.Fr. curteis.~] 

Curteysye, n. ; of curteysye, de- 
corously (?), in accordance with 
courtly manners (?), 194, (for gon 
in 1. 195 may stand, cf. 11. 113, 
125, 370, 2059) '■> curteysye maken, 
treat in a courtly manner, 2875. 
[O.Fr. curteisie.~] 

Cuuel. See Couel. 

Dam, n. lord, fellow (?), 2468. 
Here used as a term of reproach, 
but the same as Dan in Dan Chan- 
cer, &c. [O.Fr. dam.'] 

Dame, n. lady, dame, 558, 171 7. 
[O.Fr. dame.] 

Dapeit, Datheit, Datheyt, 
inter/, a curse on ! 296, 300, 926, 
1125, 1799, 1887, 1914, 2047, 2447, 
251 1, 2604, 2 757- I Q dapeyt on, 
1995, it seems to imply strong 
negation ; cf. ' devil a bit '. [O.Fr. 
dahait, see N.E.D. s.v. Dahet.~\ 

Day, n. day, daylight, life-day, 
143, 589, &c. ; Dayes, adv. gen. 
sg. by day, 2353; Dayes,//. 355, 
865 ; Dawes, pi. 2344, 2950. 
[OE. d&g.] See Are-dawes. 

Day-belle, n. morning bell, 
1 1 3 2. [OE. dxg + belle.] 

Ded, Dede, n. death, 149, 167, 
1687, &c. [Apparently from OE. 
dead, but thermal dis unexplained.] 
See Dede-bondes, Deth. 

Ded, adj. dead, 232, 464, 2007. 

[OE. dead.] 

Dede, n. deed, 180, 550. 1356, 

&c. See Hand-dede. [OE. ded.] 

Dede, &c. See Do(n). 

Dede-bondes, n. pi. bonds of 

death, 3 3 2, is probably a compound 

= ON. dauda-bpnd, pi. [OE. 

dead + ON. band.] 
Deide. See Deye. 
Del, n. part, 208, 218, 818, 1070, 

1330, &c. [OE. dxl.] See Som- 

Demen, v. to judge, 2467, 2476, 

2812; Demden, pa. t. pi. 2820, 
2833; Demd, pp. 2487, 2488, 
2765, 2838. [OE. demand] 

Deplike, adj. deeply, solemnly, 
141 7, synonymous with grundlike. 
[OE. deoplice.] 

Dere, n. dearth, 824, 841. [OE. 

Dere, adj. dear, 839, 2170, 2882, 
&c, [OE. deore.] 

Dere, adv. dearly, at great cost, 
1637, 1638. [OE. deore.] 

Dere, v. to harm, injure, 490, 
574, 648, 806, 2310. [OE. derian.] 

Desherite, v. disinherit, 2547. 
[O.Fr. desheriter.] 

Deth, n. death, 116, 354. [OE. 
dead.] See Ded. 

Deuel, n. devil, 446, 496, 11 88, 
1409. [OE. deofol.] 

Deus, interj. God! 1312, 1650, 
1930, 2096, 21 14. [O.Fr. deus.] 

Deye(n), v. to die, 168, 257, 
840; Deyede, Deide, pa. t. sg. 
231, 402. [ON. deyja.] 

Deyled (MS. Deled), pp. distri- 
buted, 1736. [ON. deila, the MS. 
reading showing OE. d&lan.] See 

Dide, &c. See Do(n). 

Dik(e), n. ditch, 1923, 2435. 
[OE. die] 

Dine, n. din, noise, 1860, 186P. 
[OE. dyne.] 

Dinge, v. to strike, beat, scourge, 

215, 2329; Dong,^>tf. t. sg. 1 147 ; 

Dungen, pp. 227. [Cf. OE. denc- 

gan, wk. ; ON. dengja, wk.] 

Dint, n. blow, stroke, 1437, 

1807, 1817, 1969. [OE. dynt.] 
See Dunten. 

Dishes, n. pi. dishes, 919. [OE. 
Do(n), v. to do, cause (usually 

with an infinitive in passive value, 

as do casten, cause to be cast, 

519), put, 117, 528, 535, 577,.6u, 

1 191, 2863 ; Dos, 2 sg.pres. indie. 

2390 ; Dos, Doth, 3 sg. pres. 



indie. 1840, 1994, 2434, 2698; 
Dos, Doth, imper. pi. 2037, 2592 ; 
Don, pres. indie, pi. 1838; Do, 
subj. 2600; Dede, Dide^pa. t. sg. 
658, 659, 709. 859, 970, 2393, 
290^ &c (on the e foiras see 
Morsbach, ME. Gram., § 130, 
n. 6) ; Deden, Diden, pa. t pi. 
242,943, 2306; Do(n), pp. 667, 
1169, 1805. Dones on — don es 
on, to put them on, 970 {see Es, 
pron.) ; don of Hue, to put out of 
liie, kill, 1805. [OE. don.] 
Dogges, dogs, 1839, t^S* 

1967, &c. [OE. dogga.~\ 

Dom, n. judgement, 2473, 2487, 
2813, &c. [OE. dom.'] 

Domesday, n. Day of Judgement, 
748, 2523. [OE. domesd&g.] 

Dore,^. door, 1788, 1792. [OE. 

Dore-tre, n. bar of a door, 1806, 

1968. [Prec. + OE. treoA See 

Douhte, pa. t. sg. was of worth, 
was good, availed, 703, 833, 11 84. 
[OE. dugan, deah (pret. pies.), 

Douhter, Dowhter, n. daughter, 
120, 258, 350, 717, 1079, 2712, 
2867, 2914, 2979, 2982, &c. [OE. 
dohtor. ] 

Doumbe, adj. pi. dumb, 543. 
[OE. dumb.] 

Doun, Dun(e), adv. down, 888, 
901, 925, 927, 1815, 2656, &c. 
See Adoun. 

Doute, n. fear, 1331, 1377. 
[O.Fr. doute.] 

Doutede, pa. t. sg. feared, 708. 
[O.Fr. douter.] 

[Drad (MS.). See Adrad.] 

Drake, n. drake, 1241. [Cf. 
German dialectal drake.] 

Drawe(n), v. to draw, drag; 
Drou, Drow, pa. t. sg. 705, 719, 
942, &c. ; Drowen, pa., t. pi. 
1837; Drawe(n),//. 1769,1925, 
2225, 2477, 2603, &c. ; to pe peni 

drou, see Peni ; drou him to, made 
for, 719. See To-, Vt-, With- 
drawen. [OE. dragan.] 

Drawing, n. pulling, tearing, 
235. [To prec] 

Drede(n), v. to dread, fear; 
Dred, imper. sg. 66 1 , 2 1 68 ; 
Dredde n), pa. t. pi. 2289, 2568. 
[i)\i. (on^dredan.] See Adiad. 

Dred(e), n. dread, anxiety, 90, 
181, 478, 828, 1 169, 1664. [T° 

Drem, n. dream, 1284, 1304, 
1 3 1 5 . [OE. dream, ON. draum-r.] 

Dremede, pa. t.;sg. impers., me 
dremede, I dreamed, 1284, 1304. 
[To prec] 

Drenchen (MS. also Dreinchen, 
561 ; Drinchen, 553), v. to drown, 
583, 1416, 1424, &c ; Drenched, 
pp. 520, 669, 1368, 1379. [OE. 

Dreng, n. ' a free tenant (special- 
ly) in ancient Northumbria, holding 
by a tenuie older than the Norman 
Conquest, the nature of which was 
partly military, partly servile' 
(N.E.D.), 31, 1327, 2184, 2194, 
2260, 2466. [ON. dreng-r.] 

Drepe(n\ v. to kill, slay, 506, 
1783 (j-^Note), 1865, &c. ; Drop, 
pa. t. sg. 2229; see Note. [OE. 
drepan. ] 

Dreping, n. slaughter, 2684. 
[To prec] 

Drinken, v. to drink, 15, 459, 
800, &c. [OE. drincan.] 

Drink, n. drink, 1738, 2457, &c. 
[To prec] 

Drit-cherl, n. dirty fellow, 682. 
[ON. drit +OE. ceorl.] 

Driue(n), v. to drive, rush, go 
quickly ; Driuende, pres. ptc. 
2702 ; Drof, pa. t. sg. 725, 1793, 
1872; Driue, pa. t. pi. 1966; 
Driuen, pp. 2599. [OE. drifan.] 

Drop. See Drepen. 

Drou. See Drawen. 

Dubfoen, v. to dub, create (a 



knight), 2042 ; Dubbede,jto. /. sg. 
2314. [See N.E.D. s.v. Dud.] 

Duelle, Dwellen, v. to tarry, 
linger, remain, 4, 1058, 1185, 
1 35 1 ; Dwelleden,/<2. 11 89. 
[OE. dwellan.] 

Dwelling, n. delay, 1352. [To 

Dun(e). See Doun. 

Dungen. See Dinge. 

Dunten, pa. t. pi. struck, beat, 
2448. [Cf. Dint, n. ; but Scotch 
dunt, n., Swedish dunta i v., point 
to Norse origin.] 

Durste, pa. t. sg. durst, dare, 
272; Dursten, pa. t. pi. 1866. 
[OE. dearr (pret. pres.), dorste.] 

Dust, n. dust, 2832. [OE. dust.] 

Eie, n. eye, 1152, 2545; Eyne, 
Eyen (MS. Eyn, 2 171), pi. 680, 
1273, 1340, 1364,2171, &c. [OE. 

Eir, Eyr, n. heir, no, 289, 410 
{see Note), 2539, &c. [O.Fr. 

Ek, Ec, adv. also, 1025, 1038, 
1066, 2348, &c. [OE. ec] Cf. 

El, n. eel, 755 (MS. Hwel), 897, 
918. [OE.*/.] 

[Eld, MS. adj. old, 546 ; Helde, 
pi. 2472, perhaps represent South- 
ern OE. eald. See Old.] 

Eld, n. age ; comen in-til elde, 
reached years of discretion, or a 
marriageable age, 128, 174; be of 
elde, 387. [OE. eld.] 

Eldeste, adj. superl. wk. eldest, 
1396. [OE. eldest.] See Old. 

Elles, adv. else, 1192, 2590. 
[OE. elles.] 

Em, n. uncle, 1326. [OE. (WS.) 

Ende, n. duck, 1241. [OE. 
ened. ] 

Ende, n. dat. end, 247, 734. 
[OE. ende.] 

Endinge, n. end, death, 3001. 
[OE. endung.] 

Er, adv. before, 541, 684. [OE. 
er.] See Are-dawes, Or, adv. 

Er, conj. before, 15, 229, 317, 
I26r, 2(;8o. [To prec] 

Erehebishop, n. archbishop, 
1 1 78. [OE. xrcebiscop.] 

Erde (MS. ErJ>e), v. to dwell, 

739. FOE. eardian.] 
Eritage, iz. heritage, 2836. 

[O.Fr. eritage.] 

Erl, n. earl, 31, 189, 206, 273, 
443, 2898, &c. [OE. eorl.] 

Erldom, n. earldom, 2909. [OE. 
eorl + dom.] 

Ern, n. eagle, 572. [OE. earn.] 

Erpe, n. earth, ground, 248, 424, 

740, 2657. [OE. eorde.] 

*Es = is, 2699, see Introd., p. 

Es, Ys, *Is (MS. As, 1 1 74), 
pron. pi. them, n 74 (bis) ; dones 
on — don es on, put them on, 970. 
See Note to 1. 784. [See N.E.D. 
s.v. His.] 

Et, pron. neut. sg. attached to 
verbs = it : bihetet = bihete et, 
677; havedet, 714; youenet, 
1643 ; hauenet, 2005. See It. 

Ete(n), v. to eat, 146, 317, 457, 
641, 791, 800, 911; Eteth, fut. 
672 ; Et, imper. 19, 925 ; Et^ 
pa. t. sg. 653, 656, 1879 ; Eten, 
PP- 65 7, 9 2 9- [OE. etan.] 

Euere, Eure, adv. ever, 17, 207, 
327, 424, 704, 830, &c. [OE. 

Euere-ich, Eueri, adj. every, 8, 
137, &c. [OE. afre-ylc] 

Euer(e)-ilk, -ilc (MS. Euer(e)- 
il generally in eueril del, 219, 
1334, 1664, 1764, 2318, &c), adj. 
every, 1330, 2258, 2432; Eueri- 
del, 1070, 1 1 76, 1383. [See 

Eueri. See Euere-ich. 

Euerilk-on, pron. every one, 
1062, 1996, 2197 [Prec. + OE. dn.~] 



Euere-mar, adv. evermore, 
1971. [OE. af re + mare.] 
Eyen, Eyne. See Eie. 
Eyr. See Eir. 
*Eyf>er. See Ayper. 

Fader, n. father, 1224, 1403, 
1416, &c. [OE.fmder.] 

Faderles, adj. fatherless, 75. 
[OE. (Merc.) feadur-leas.] 

Fadmede, pa. t. sg. embraced, 
encircled (with the arms), 1295. 
[OE. faefimian , f&dm ian. ] 

Faile, Fayle, n. ; with-uten 
faile, without fail, 179, 2909. 
[O.Er. faile."] 

Falle, v. to fall, befall, happen, 
occur, appertain to, 39, &c. ; 
Falles, imper.fil. 2302 ; Pel, pa. 
t. sg. 351, 1009, 1177, 1 1 90, 1815, 
2359; Pelle(n), pa. t. pi. 1303, 
2656 ; Pelle, pa. t. subj. 1673 ; 
Pelden, wk. pa. 2698 ; Fal- 
len,^/. 2658. [OE. fallan.] 

Pals, adj. false, *H57, 251 1. 

Palwes, n. pi. ploughed fields, 
2509. [See N.E.D.] 

Pare, n. journey, 1337, 2621. 

Paren, v. to go, fare, 51, 120, 
264, 1392, 2690, 2705 ; P or, pa. t. 
$g. 2382, 2943 ; Poren, pa. t. pi. 
2380, 261%;' farcn with, to act 
towards, treat, 2705. [OE. far an.] 
See Ferde. 

Past, adj. firm, fast, 710. [OE. 

Paste, adv. fast, firmly, closely, 
attentively, 83, 144, 537, 2148. 

Fastinde,/r&y.//<:. fasting, 865. 

Fauht. See Fyhten. 

Fawen, adj. fain, glad, 2160. 
[OE. fagen.] 

Fayr, Pair, adj. fair, nr, &c. ; 
Payrest(e), Fairest, superl. 200, 
2 8 1 , 1 08 1 , &c. [OE. f&geri] 

Payre, Paire, Peyre, adv. fair- 
ly, 224, 452, 785. [Toprec] 

Pe, n. possessions, goods, money, 
44, 3*6, 563, 1225, 2213, &c. [OE. 
feh, *fi.] 

Peble, adj. scanty, wretched, 
323, 2457. [O.Yv.feble.] 

Feblelike, adv. scantily, 418. 
[Prec. + OE. lice.'] 

Pede(n), v. to feed, rear, 100, 
322, 906; Pedde, pa. t. sg. 420, 
2907; Fed,//. 657. [OE.fedan.] 

Pel. See Falle. 

Felawes, n. pi. companions, 
1338. [ON.filagl] 

Peld, n. field, 2634, 2685, 291 1. 

Felde, pa. t. sg. felled, 1859, 

2694; Feld > PP> l82 4- [° E - 

Pelden. See Falle. 

Fele, adj. many, 778, 1277, 1737, 
&c. [OE.fela.] 

Fele, adv. very, 2442. [See prec] 

Felede,/#. t. sg. pursued (?), 67. 
[Kentish felgan, OE. fylgan (?).] 

Felony, Felounye, n. felony, 
crime, 444, 2989. [O.Er.felonie.] 

Pen, n. mud, 872, 2102. [OE. 

Fend, n. fiend, 506, 1411, 2229. 
[OE. feond.] 

Per, adv. far, 1863 ; from far (?), 
2341 ; fer and hende, far and near, 
359, 2275 ; fernener, 2793. [OE. 

Ferd, n. army, 2384, 2535, 2548, 
2602, &c. [OE. ferd.] 

Ferde, pa. t. sg. journeyed, went, 
went on, 287, 447, 1678, Sec; 
Ferden, pa. t. pi. 151 ; ferde 
with, acted towards, treated, 241 1. 
[OE. fer an.] 

Fere, n. companion, wife, 1214. 
[OE. (ge)fera.] 

Ferlik(e), n. wonder, 1258, 
T849. [Cf. OE. (WS.) fserlzc, adj.] 

Feme, adj. distant, 2031. See 



Feme, adv. far, 1864. [OE. 
feorran {/).] 

Fer]?e, adj. fourth, 18 10. [OE. 

Ferping, n. and «^'. farthing, 
878; ferpinges nok, particle of 
a farthing, 820. [OE.jeorSing.] 

Feste, n. feast, 2344, &c. [O.Fr. 

Feste, v. to feast, endow, 2938. 
\p.Yr. fester^ 

Festen, v. to fasten, bind, grip, 
82, 1785; Fest, pp. 144. LOE. 

Fet. See Fot. 

Fete, v. to fetch, bring, 316, 642, 
912,937,1715,2037,2341. [OE. 

Fetere, v. to fetter, 2758. [To 

Feteres, n. pi. fetters, 82, 2759. 
[OE. fetor.] 

Fey, n. faith, 255, 1666. [O.Fr. 
fei, see next.] 

Feyth, n. faith, 2269, 2853. 
[O.Yx.feift) earlier form of fez.] 

Fif, Fiue, adj. five, 213. [OE. 

Fifte, adj. fifth, 1816. [OE. 

Fiht, n. fight, 2668, 2716. [OE. 
feht{e).] See Fyhten. 

Fikel, adj. fickle, disloyal, 12 10, 
2799. [OE.ficol.] 

File, n. filthy fellow, 2499. [ON. 

Fille, n. fill, 954. [OE. fyllo.] 

Fille, v. to fill, complete; Fil, 
imper. 14 ; Filde, /#. /. sg. 933 ; 
Fulde, pp. 355, ^ Note. [OE. 

Finde(n), Fynde, v. to find, 
42, 220, 1083; Funde, pa. t. sg. 
49 ; Funden, pa. t. pi. 56, 602 ; 
Funde(n),//. 1427, 2376. [OE. 

Finger, n. finger, 1743. [OE, 

Fir, Fyr, n. fire, 585, 915, 1162 ; 

firing, fuel, 912. [OE, fyr.] See 

Firrene, adj. made of fir-wood, 
2078. [To OE. *fyre, 0~N.fyri-.] 

First(e), adj. first, 1052, 2657. 
[OE. fyrst] 

Fir-sticke, n. faggot, 966. [Prec. 

+ OE. s ticca."] 

Fish, n. fish, 751, 833; Fish, 
pi. collective, 762, 814; Fishes, 
pi. 882, 1393. [OE. jisc.] 

Fishere, n. fisherman, 524, 749, 
2230. [OE.fscere.~j 

Fiuetene, adj. fifteen, 2979. 
[Remodelling of OE. fzftene.] 

Flaunes, n. pi. a flat cake 
made with custard, 644. [O.Fr. 

Flawen. See Flo. 

Fie, v. flee, 492, 1195 ; Fledde, 
pa. t. sg. 1431 ; Fledden,/^. 
2416. [OE. fleon.] 

Flemen, v. to put to flight, 
drive out, 11 60. [OE.fleman.] 

Flete, pres. subj. sg. float, swim, 
522. [OE. fleotan.~] 

Fleye, v. to fly, 1791, 18 13, 
1827, 2751; Vley, 1305. 
[OE. fegan.] 

Fleys(h), Flesh, n. flesh, 216, 
781. [OE.f&sc] 

Flintes, n. pi. flints, stones, 
1863. [OE. flinty 

Flo, v. to flay, 612, 2495 ; Flow, 
pa. t. sg. 2502 ; Flo we, pa. t. pi. 
2433 ; Flawen, pp. 2476. [ON. 

Flod, n. sea, 522, 669, 1222. 
[OE. fod.] 

Flok, n. band, company, 24. 
[OE. flocc] 

Flote, n. company, household, 
738. [O.Ev.flote.~] 

Flour, n. flower, blossom, 1719, 
2917. [O.Ei. flour.] 

Fnaste, v. to breathe, 548. [OE. 

Fo, Foo, n. foe, 67, 1363, 2849. 
[OE. fdh, {ge)fd.] 



Fol, n. fool, 298, 2100. [O.Fr. 
Fol, adj. foolish, 307. [O.Fr. 

Fole, Folk, n. people, men, 
warriors, 89, 438, &c. [OE.folc] 

Folwes, follow, 1885, 
2601 ; Folwede, pa. t. sg. 1994. 
[OE. folgian.] See Felede. 

Fonge, v. to take, 763 {see Note) ; 
for cold fongen, 856, see Cold. 
[OIL. fan, ipp.fangen.] 

For, prep, for, on account of, 34, 
44, 285, 1670, &c. ; before, 2783, 
2947 ; for to, forto, is commonly 
prefixed to the infinitive, 38, 102, 
&c. [OR. for, fore.'] 

For, conj. for, 167, 2222, &c. 
[OE. for, prep.] 

For, Foren. See Faren. 

Forbere, v. to spare, neglect 
(deliberately), 352 ; Forbar, pa. 
t. sg. 764, 2623. [OE. forberan.~] 

Forfaren, pp. brought to de- 
struction, 1380. [OE. forfaren.'] 

Forgat, pa. t. sg. forgot, 2636, 
2897. [OE. for + ON. geta; cf. 
OE. forgetan.] See Foryat. 

Forgiue, v. to forgive, 2718. 
[OK>+ON. gifa ; cf. OE. for- 

For-henge, v. kill by hanging, 
2724. [OE. for + ON. hengja.] 

Forhwi, adv. wherefore, why, 
2578. [OE.forAwz.] 

Forlor(e)n, pp. (utterly) lost, 
580, 770, 1424. [OE. forleosan.] 

Formede, jta. t. sg. formed, made, 
1 168. [O.Fr. former.] 

Forsake, v. to refuse, 2778. 
[OE. forsacan.] 

Forsworen, pp. forsworn, per- 
jured, 1423. [OE. for swerian.] 

Forth, adv. forth, onward, for- 
ward, 91, 338, &c. [OE. ford.] 

Forpi, adv. and conj. because, 

therefore, 1194, 1431, 2043, 2500. 

Forth ward, adv. in the future, 

as the tale proceeds, 731, 1640. 
[OE. fordward.] 

Forto. See For. 

Forw, n. furrow, 1094. [OE. 

Forward(e), n. promise, com- 
pact, condition, 5 54 ; to pat for- 
ward, on condition that, 486. 
[OE. foreward.] 

Foryat, pa. t. sg. forgot, 249. 
[OE. forgelan.] See Forgat. 

Fostred, pp. nourished, brought 
up, 1434, 2239. [OE.fostrian.] 

Fot, n. foot, foot-length, 1199, 
2432 {see Note) ; Fote, dat. in 
on fote, 101, &c. ; Fote, gen. pi. 
1054; Fet, pi. 616, 1022, 1303, 
2479. [OE.foQ 

Fouhten. See Fyhten. 

Foure, adj. four, 816; one four e, 
four only, 1742. [OE.feower.] 

Fourteniht, n. fortnight, 2284. 
[OE. feowertene niht.] 

Fre, adj. free, 262, 530, 629, &c. 
[OE. freo.] 

Fredom, n. freedom, 631. [OE. 

Freman, n. freeman, 628. [OE. 

Fremde, adj. pi. (as n.) stran- 
gers, 2277. [OE. fremde.] 

Freme, v. to perform, do, 441. 
[OE. fremzan.] 

Frende, friend, relative, 375 ; 
Frend, pi. 326, 2068 ; Frendes, 
pi. 2585. [OE. freond, but the 
disyllabic form and the sense at 
375 point to ON.frsendz.] 

Frest, n. delay ; do on frest = 
put off, postpone, 1337. [ON. 

[Fri (MS.), adj. 1072, free, 

Frie, v. to blame, 1998. [ON. 

Fro, prep, from, 16, 265, 279, 
332, 692, &c. ; adv. in to and fro, 
2071. [ON./;u] 

Frusshe. See To-frusshe. 



Ful, adv. very, much, complete- 
ly, 6, 82, 141, 611, 2589, &c. 

Fulde. 6^ Fille. 

Ful(e), Foule, adj. foul, 506, 
555, 626, 965, 1158, 2401, &c. 

Ful(le), adj. full, 780, 2686. 

Fullike (MS. Fulike), adv. 
shamefully, 2749. \OE.ful(I)ice.'] 

Funde(n). See Finden. 

Fyhten <^MS. Fyht), v. to fight, 
2361; Fauht, pa t. sg. 1990; 
Fouhten, pa. t. pi. 2661. [OE. 
fehtan?^ See Fiht. 

Fyn, n. ending, 22. [O.Fr. 

Gad, n. goad, 279, 1016. [ON. 

Gadeling, n, a low fellow, 11 21. 
[OE. gsedeling.'] 

Gadred, pp. gathered, 2577. 
[OE. gadrian.] 

Gaf. See Giue. 

Galle, n. gall, 40. [OE. galla.~], n. pi. gallows, 687, 
2477, 2508. [OE. galga.~] 

Galwe-tre, n. gallows, 43, 335, 
695. [OE. galg-treo, ON. gdlga- 

Game(n), n. game, sport, joy, 
468, 980, 1716, 2135, 2577, 2 935> 
2963; Game, 996, pei haps means 
' amorous play ' ; in 2250 ' joyous 
ceremony \ [OE. gamen.~\ 

Gan, pa. t. used with infinitive as 
equivalent of the simple preterite 
as in gan crien = cried, 2443 ; 
*gan priue (MS. bigan), 280, &c. 
See Biginnen. [OE. -ginnan.~\ 

Gange(n), Gongen, v. to walk, 
go, 370, 796, 845, 855, 1 185, 

!739> 2 °59> &c - ; G-onge, 2 sg. 
pres. subj. 690, 843 ;, 
pres. ptc. walking, on foot, 2283. 
[OE. gangan.~] 

Gart(e), pa. t. sg. caused, made, 
189, 1001, 1082, 1857, &c. [ON. 
g&ra ; the regular a is difficult.] 
Gat(en). See Geten. 
Gate, n. way, road, 846, 889, 
2509. [ON. gata.~] 6#?Hwilkgat, 

*Geet, n. pi. goats, added in 
1. 701. [OE. gat, pi. g&t.~] 

Genge, n. company, household, 
retinue, 786, 1735, 2353, 2362, 
2383. [ON.gengi.] 

Gent, adj. fair, noble, 2139. 
[O.Fr. gent."] 
Gere. See Messe-gere. 
Gest, n, tale, romance, 2328, 
2984. [O.Fr. geste ] 

Gete, v. to watch, guard, look 
after. 2762, 2960. [ON.^e/fl.] 

Gete(n), v. to get, earn, catch, 
beget, 147, 792, 908, 1393; Gat, 
pa. t. sg. 495, 730 ; Gaten, Geten, 
pa. t. pi. 2893, 2934, 2978; 
Geten, pp. 930. [ON.geta.'} See 

Girde, pa. t. sg. girt, 2922 ; 
Girt, pp. 2385. [OE. gyrdan.~] 

Gisarm, n. a halberd, a kind of 
battle-axe with a spike at its back, 
2533. [O.Fr. gisa rme. ] 

Giue, v. to give, 2880 {see Giue, 
n.) ; Ga£ 9 219,418, 1311, 
Sec. ; Gouen, pa. t. pi. 164 ; Give, 
pp. 2488 ; Gyuen,pp. 365 ; Gouen, 
pp. 220. On gouen hem irfe, 
grieved, 164, see Note. [ON. ge/a, 
O.Sw. gifa; see N.E.D.] See 

Giue, Gyue, n. gift, 357; ich 
giue pe a giue pat . . ., I give 
thee assurance that . . ., 2880. 
[To prec] 

Giueled, pp. heaped up, 814. 
[O.Fr. *geveler.~\ 

Glad, adj. glad, 947. [OE. glmd.~\ 

Gladlike, adv. gladly, 805, 906, 
1760. [OE. glazdlzce.'] 

Glede, n. dat. a live coal, 91, 
I 870. [OE. gled.~] 



Gleiue, Gle ju.e,n. spear or lance 
(cf.l 1864), sword (?). Themeaning 
is usually not clear from the con- 
text; 267, 1748, 1770, 1844, 1864, 
1981. [O.Fr. gleive.] 

Glem, n. gleam , ray , 2 1 2 2 . [OE. 

Gleu, n. sport, amusement, 2332. 
[OE. gleow.] See next word. 

Gleumen (MS. Glevmen altered 
from Gleymen), n. pi. gleemen, 
musicians, 2329. [OE. gleoman.] 

Glides, 3 sg. fires, indie, glides, 
flows, 185 1. [OE. glzdan.] 

Glotuns, n. fil. gluttons, rascals, 
2104. [O.Fr. glutun.] 

Gnede, adj. niggardly, mean, 97. 
[OE. *gnede.] 

God, n. God, 35, &c. ; God, 
dat. sg, in God fiank, 2005 {see 
J>ank). [OE.^.] 

God, n. good thing, property, 
goods, 797, 1221, 2034, &c - [OE. 
god, adj.] 

God(e), adj. good, 1, 7, 8, 22, 
34, &c. [OE. god.'] 

Goddot, znterj. God knows, 606, 
642, 796, 909, 1656, 2543; cf. 
2527. [OE.godwat.] 6"^Wite(n). 

Gold, n. gold, 44, 47, 73, 357, 
&c. [OE. gold.] 

Gome, n. man, 7. [OE. guma.~] 

G-o(n), v. to walk, go, avail, 113, 
125, 1045 ; Goth, imfier. fil. 1780; 
Gon, pp. 848, 1430, 2692. [OE. 
gdn.] See Ouer-ga, Yede. 

Gonge(n). See Gange(n). 

Gore, n. filth (?), garment (?) 2496, 
see Note. [OE. gor (?) or gar a (?).] 

Gos, n. goose, 1240; Gees, fil. 
702. [OE.gos.] 

Gouen. See Giue. 

Goulen, v. howl, cry, 454 ; 
Gouleden, fia. t. fil. 164. [ON. 

Gram, adj. angry, 2469. [OE. 

Graten, Groten, z>. to weep, 
329; Grotinde, fires, fitc. 1390; 

Graten, pp. 241 ; I-groten, pp. 
285. [ON. grata.] See Greten. 

Graue, v. to bury, 613 ; Graue n, 
pp. 2528. [OE. grafan.] 

Graue, n. grave, 408. [OE. 

Grauntede, pa. t. sg. granted, 
1 1 54. [O.Fr. graunter.] 

Grede, v. to call (loudly), 96, 
2703; Gredde, pa. t. sg. 2417. 
[OE. gredan.] 

Greme, v. to anger, annoy, 442. 
[OE. gremian^ See Gram. 

Grene, adj. green, sickly in 
colour, 470. [OE.lgrene.] 

Grene, n. a green, a grassy field, 
996, 2828, 2840. [To prec] 

Gres, n. grass, 2698. [OE. 

Gret(e), adj. great, big, 771, 
897 ; Grettere, compar. 1893. 
[OE. great] 

Grete(n), v. to weep, 454 ; Gret, 
pa. t. sg. 615, 1 129, 2159 ; Greten, 
pa. t. pi. 164, 236, 415, 449, 2796. 
[OE. gret an, greotan.] 

Greting, n. weeping, 166. [To 

Grette, pa. t. sg. greeted, saluted, 
accosted, assailed, 452,1811,2625; 
GretteTa., 121 2; Gret, pp. 
2290; I-gret, pp. 163. [OE. 
gret an.] 

Greu, Grewe. See Growen. 

Greue, v. to grieve, offend, 2953. 
[O.Fr. grever.] 

Greype, v. to prepare, 1762; 
Greypede, pa. t. sg. 706 ; Grey- 
ped, pp. 714; Greyped (MS. 
Gxt^&t), pp. 2615 ; Greyped (MS. 
Gre]?ed), pp. handled roughly, 
treated badly, 2003. [ON. greida.] 

Greyue, n. an official in town 
administration, 266, 1711; J>e 
greynes, the official's (house), 
1 749. [ON. greifi.] 

Grim, adj. fierce, angry, severe, 
155, 680, 2398, 2655, 2761. [OE. 



Grim, n. rage, excitement, 2333, 
see Note. [To prec] 

Grim(?), n. grime (?), dirt (?), 

2496. See Note. 

Grip, n. griffin, 572. [O.Fr. 

Grip, n. ditch, 1924, 2102. [OE. 

Gripe (n), v. to grip, grasp, 
snatch ; Gripeth, 1882 ; 
Grop, pa. t. sg. 1776, 1871, 1890, 
2728, &c. ; Gripen, 1790. 
[OE. gripan.] 

Grith, n. peace, security, 61, 511. 
[ON. grid.'] 

Grith-sergeans, n. pi. officers 
appointed to keep the peace, 267. 
[Prec. + O.Fr. sergant] 

Grom, n. boy, 790 ; Grom, pi. 
2472. Note the rimes with nor- 
mal § and 5. [See N.E.D.] 

Gronge, n. grange, farm-house, 
764. [O.Fr. graunge.~\ 

Grop. See Gripen. 

Grotes, n. pi. pieces, small 
pieces, 472, 1414. [OE. grot.~] 

Grotinde. See Graten. 

Growen, v. to grow, 1167 ; 
Greu, pa. t. sg. 2333, Grewe, pa. 2975, arose; in the phrases 
grim greu, 2333 (j^Note); wordes 
grewe, 2975. [OE. growan.] 

Grund(e), n. dat. ground, 1859, 
1979,2675. [OE. grund.~] 

Grunden,//. ground, sharpened, 
2503. [OE. grindan^] 

Grundlike, adj. pi. solemn, 
2013. [OE. grund+ lie] 

Grundlike, adv. heartily, so- 
lemnly, 651, 2268, 2307, 2659. 
[OE. grund + lice.'] 

Grund-stalwurJ>e, adj. very 
stalwart, 1027. [OE. grund + 

Gyue. See Giue. 

Halde, Holde(n), v. to hold, 
keep, be loyal, 29, 1171, 1382 ; 
Held, pa. t. sg. 61, 109, 2526; 

Helden,/#. t. pi. 69, 1201 ; Hal- 
den, pp. 2806 ; halde with, sup- 
port, stand by, 2308. [OE.haldan.] 

Half, adj. half, 2370. [OE. 

Halle, n. dat, hall, 157, 239, 
1067, &c. [OE. hall.] 

Hals, n. neck, 521, 670, 2510. 
[OE. hals.] 

Halte, adj. pi. lame, 543. [OE. 

Halue, n. pi. sides ; bi bope 
halue, on both sides, 2682. [OE. 

Haluendel, n. the half part, 460. 
[OE. halfan dsel, ace] 

Hamer, n. hammer, 1877. [OE. 

Hand, Hond, n. hand, posses- 
sion, 50, 251, 1342, 2446 ; in 
honde haue, 1020, see Note; 
Handes, Hondes, pi. 95, 215, 
2 35> 333> 636, &c. ; Hend, pi. 
See Hend. [OE. hand.] 

Hand-ax, n. battle-axe, 2553. 
[Prec. + OE. sex.] 

Hand-bare, adj. empty-handed, 
766. [OE. hand+bxr.] 

Hand-dede, n. dat. pi. deeds of 
the hand, 92. [OE. hand+ded.] 

Handlen, Handel, v. to handle, 
wield, 347, 586. [OE. handlian.] 

Hangen, Honge, v. to hang, 
335> 6 95 2 2 8°7- [° E - hangian, 
wk. ; hon, str., pp. hangen.] 
See Heng. 

Hard(e), adj. hard, oppressive, 
143, 1992. [OE. hard.] 

Harde, adv. hard, 567, 639, &c. 
[To prec] 

Hare, n. hare, 1994. [OE. hara.] 

Harping, n. playing on the harp, 
2325. [OE. harpungP\ 

Harum, n. pity, 1983 {see Note), 
2409. [OE. harm.] 

Hasard, n. game at dice, 2326. 
[O.Fr. hasard!] 

Hated(e), pa. t. sg. hated, 40, 
1 188. [OE. hatian.] 



Hauen, v. to have, 78, &c. ; 
Haues(t), 2 sg. pres. indie. 688, 
848, &c. ; Haues, Haueth, 3 sg. 
pres. indie. £,64, 1266, 1285, 1952, 
1980, &c. ; Hauen,//. pres. indie. 
1227; Haueden, pa. t. pi. 163, 
238, &c. ; Hauede(n), pa. t. subj. 
would have, 1428, 1643, 1687, 
2020, 2675 ; Hauenet, 2005 ; 
Hauedet, 714, see Et. Haui = 
Haue i, 2002. [OE. habban.] 

Haui. See Hauen. 

He, pron. 3 sg. masc. he, 6, 8, 
&c. ; His(e), poss. adj. 34, &c. ; 
Him, ace. and dat. 18, 30, 286, 
&c. [OE. he, his, him.~] 

He, pron. 3 pi. they, 54, 57, &c. ; 
'H.&£{e) i gen. pi. and /^w. #<^'. 52, 
&c. ; Hem, ace. and afotf. ^/. 367, 
&c. [OE. heo, heora, heom?] See 

Hede, imper. sg. take heed ! have 
a care ! 2389. [OE. hedan.] 

Heie. See Hey. 

Held(en). See Halde. 

Hele(n), v. to heal, 1836, 2058. 
[OE.hselan.] See Holed. 

Heles, n. pi. heels, 898. [OE. 

Helle, ». hell, 16, &c. ; Helle, 
£<?«. jr^. 405. [OE. /z<?//.] 

Helm, /z. helmet, 379, 624, 1653, 
2612, &c. [OE. helm.'] 

Helpen, v. to help, 166, 1712 ; 
Helpes, imper. pi. 2595; Holpen, 
pp. in holpen doune with, 901. 
[OE. helpan?^ 

Hem (MS. Horn, 1298), /?wz. 
them, 367, 376, &c. [OE. heom.~\ 
See He, pron. pi., and pel. 

Hemp, n. hemp, 782. [OE. 

Hend, n. pi. hands, 505, 2069, 

2444. [ON. hend-r, pi.] See 

Hende, adj. courteous, skilful, 

1104, 1421, 1704, 2628, 2877, 

2914. [See next.] 
Hende, adv. near at hand in 

fer and hende, 359, 2275. [OE. 
(ge) hende. ,] 

Hendeleike, n. dat. courtesy, 
2793. [Hende, adj. + ON. -leik-r.] 

Hengen, v. to hang, 43, 2486 ; 
Henged, pp. 1429, 1922, 2480. 
[ON. hengja.~] See For-henge and 

Henne, n. hen, 702, 1240. [OE. 
henne, -a, beside henn.~] 

Henne, adv. hence, 843, 1780, 
1799. [OE. heonan(e).] 

Her, n. hair, 1924. [OE. her.] 
See Hor. 

Herboru, n. lodging, 742. [OE. 

Herborwed, pp. lodged, housed, 
742. [To prec] 

Her(e), adv. here, 689, 1058, 
1S80, &c. [OE. her.] 

Her(e), Hire, pron. their, 52, 
393, 465* 953. &c. [OE. heora, 
hiora.~\ See Ilker, J>er(e). 

Here, n. army, 346, 379, 2153, 
2580, 2942. [OE. here.] 

Here(n), v. to hear, listen, 4, 
732, 1640, 2279; Herde, pa. t. 
sg. 286, 465, &c. ; Herd en, pa. 
t. pi. 150, &c. [OE. heran.] See 

Hering, n. herring, 758. [OE. 

Herinne, adv. herein, 458. [OE. 
her + innan.] 

Herkne, v. to listen, imper. sg. 
1285; Herkneth, imper. pi. 1. 
[OE. herenian.] 

Hermites, n. pi. hermits, 430. 
[O.Fr. hermite^] 

Hemes, n. pi. brains, 1808, 

191 7 {see Note). [ON. hjarni. 
earlier *heam-.~] 

Hern-panne, ?z. brain-pan, skull. 

1 99 1 . [Prec. + OE. panne.] 
Her-of (MS. Heroffe), adv. 2585, 
[OE. her + of.] 

Hert, n. hart, deer, 1872. [OE 
Herte, n. heart, 479, 2054 



Herte, gen. sg. 70, 18 19. [OE. 

Hertelike, adv. heartily, brave- 
ly, 1347, 2748. [Prec. + lice.] 

Hetelike, adv. fiercely, furiously, 
2655. [OE. hetelice.] 

Hepen, adv. hence, 683, 690, 
845, 1085, 2727. [ON. hedan.] 

Heu,». colour, complexion, 2918. 
[OE. heow.] 

Heued, n. head, 379, 624, 1653, 
1 701, 1759, i 9°7j & c * [OE. hea- 

Heuen(e), n. heaven, 62, 246, 
1276, &c. Henene, gen. pi. 1937. 
[OE. heofon.] 

Heuene-riche, n. kingdom of 
heaven, 133, 407. ' [OE. heofon- 
rice.] See Rike. 

Heui, adj. heavy, laborious, 808, 
2456, &c. [OE. hejig.] 

T3.&w,fta. t. sg. cut, 2729. [OE. 
heawan.] See To-hewen. 

Hexte, adj. superl. weak, high- 
est, tallest, 1080, *I99. See 

Hey, adj. high, tall, 987, 107 1, 
1083, 1289; heye se, high sea, 
719; heye curt, high court, 1685; 
heye and /owe, high and low, 
every one, 2431, 2471, &c. [OE. 

Heye, adv. high, on high, 43, 
335> 6 95> &c. [To prec] 

Hey(e)like, adv. highly, nobly, 
1329, 2319. [OE. heh + lice.] 

Heyman, n. man of high rank, 
nobleman, 231, 1260. [OE. heh + 

Hidden, pa. t. pi. hid, 69 ; Hyd, 
pp. 1059. [OE. hydan.] 

Hider, adv. hither, 868, 885, 

143 1. [OE. hider.] 

Hides, n. pi. skins, 918. [OE. 

Hil, Hyl, n. hill, heap, 892, 

1287. [OE. hyll.] 
Hile, v. to cover, 2082. [ON. 


Hine, n. pi. servants, slaves, 620. 
[OE. hlna, gen. pi.] 

Hire, pron.fem. ace. gen. dat. sg. 
her, to her, 127, 130, 131, 333, 
2916, &c. [OE. hire.] 

Hire, n. hire, pay, 908, 910. 
[OE. hyr.] 

His(e), Hyse (MS. Is, 735, &c. ; 
Hiis, 47, 468), poss. adj. his, 34, 
333? 355> 794. 2 395> &c. ; abso- 
lutely used, 2018. The forms in 
-e are properly plural, being new 
formations on the analogy of mine, 
pine. [OE. his, gen. sg.] See He. 

Hof, pa. t. sg. heaved, raised, 
2750. [OE. hebban, pret. sg. 

Hok, n. hook, fish-hook, 752, 
1 102. [OE. hoc.] 

Hoi, adj. whole, well, 2075. 
[OE. hdl] 

Hold, adj. loyal ; his soule hold 
= loyal to his soul, i. e. actuated by 
care for his soul, 74 ; hold(e) opes, 
oaths of loyalty or fealty (cf. OE. 
hold-dpas), 2781, 2816. [OE. 

Holden. See Halde. 

Hole, n. dat. hole, socket (of 
the eye), 1813, 2439. [OE. hoi.] 

Holed, pp. healed, 2039 ( see 
Hale, v? in N.E.D.). [OE. 

Holi, adj. holy, 36, 431, 1361, 
&c. [OE. hdlig.] 

Holpen. See Helpen. 

Horn, n. and adv. home, 557, 
778 ; at hom{e), 789, 822. [OE. 

Hond. See Hand, Hend. 

Honge. See Hangen. 

Hope, n. hope, expectation, 307. 
[OE. hopa.] 

Hor, n. hair, 235. [ON. hdr.] 
See Her. 

Horn, n. horn, 700 ; simenels 
with pe horn, 779, probably refers 

to the shape of the simnel. Halli- 
. well says a simnel is ' generally 



made in a three-cornered form'. 
See N.E.D. [OE. horn.'] 

Hors, n. horse, 94, 126, 370, 
2283; Hors,//. 701, 1222. [OE. 

Horse-knaue, n. horseboy, 
groom, 1019. [OE. hors + cnafa.] 

Hosed, pp. supplied with hose, 
971. [To next.] 

Hosen, n. pi. hose, clothing for 
the leg, 860, 969. [OE. hosa.~] 

Hoslen, v. to administer or to 
receive the sacrament, 212, 362; 
Hos(e)led, pp. 364, 2598. [OE. 

Hoten, pp. called, named, 106, 
284. [OE. hdtan.] 

[Houes (MS.), 582, see *Bihoues. 
Shortened forms are quoted in 
N.E.D. from the fifteenth century.] 

Hu, Hou (MS. also Hwou), adv. 
how, 120, 288, 827, 960, 1646, 
241 1, 2946, 2987, &c. [OE. hu.'] 

Hul, n. hollow, 2687 ; see Note. 

Hund, n. hound, 1994, 2331, 
2435. [OE. hund.] 

Hundred, adj. hundred, 1633. 
[OE. hundred!] 

Hunger, n. hunger, famine, 416, 

6"35> 6 5 2 > 841, 2 454 ( MS - Hun " 
gred), &c. [OE. hungor.] 

Hungre(n), v. impers. with dat. ; 
us hungreih = we are hungry, 455, 
464; him hungrede, he was hun- 
gry. [To prec] 

Hus, n. house, 740, 1141, 2913. 
[OE. hils.] See Milne-hous. 

Hwan, adv. when, since, 408, 
474,1962,2808, &c. [OE. hwanne.] 
See Quan(ne). 

Hware, adv. where, 1881, 2240, 
2579. The predominance of a 
spellings points to a short vowel. 
[ON. hvar or OE. hwdraQ).] 
See Hwere, Hwore-so. 

Hwar-of, adv. wherefrom, 2976. 
[Prec. + 2/:] 

Hwat, /?wz. what, 117,541,596, 
1 1 37, &c. ; why, 2547; hwat is 

y u > 453 5 hwat is pe, 1951, 2704, 
what is wrong with you ; hwat 
for, what with, 635. [OE. hw&t.] 

Hwat, adv. what ! 2547. [To 

Hwere, adv. where, 1083. [OE. 
hwer.] See Hware. 

Hwere, adv. whether (?), wher- 
ever (?), 549. See Note. 

HweJ>er, adv. whether, 2098 ; in- 
troduces a question, 292, 294. 
[OE. hwteper.] 

Hwi, Qui, adv. why, 454, 1650, 
&c. [OE. hwi.] 

Hwider, adv. whither, n 39. 
[OE. hwider.] 

Hwil, conj. while, whilst, 6, 301, 
363, 538, 2437. [See next.] 

Hwile, n. dat. time, little time, 
722, 1830. [OE. hwil.] 

Hwilkgat (MS. Hwilgat), adv. 
how, which way, 836. [OE. hwile 
+ ON. gata.] See Gate, J>usgate. 

Hwit, adj. white, 48, 11 44, 1729. 
[OE. hwit.] 

Hwo, pron. interrog. 172, 1952, 
&c. [OE. hwd.] 

Hwo, pron. indef. whosoever, 
296, 300, 2604, &c. [OE. hwd.] 

[Hwor (MS.), adv. whether (in- 
troducing a question), 1 1 1 9. [ON. 
hvdrr(}).] See Hwere.] 

Hwore-so, pron. wheresoever, 
1349. See Hware and So. 

H-wo-so, pron. whosoever, 4, 76, 
83, &c. ; Hwom so, ace. 197. 
See Hwo and So. 

Hyl. See Hil. 

Hyse. See His(e). 

Ich, I, Y, pron. I, 21, 167, 305, 
487, 686, 1377, &c. Enclitic in 
Biddi = Bidde i, 484 ; Haui = Haue 
i, 2002. Me, ace. and dat. 1, 14, 
295, &c. ; Mi, Min(e), poss. adj. 
528, 578; used absolutely, 295, 
2083, &c. [OE. ic, me, mm.] 

I-gret. See Grette. 

I-groten. See Graten. 



Ilk, He, adj. each, every, 1442, 
1740; like, 821; (MS. II del, 
every part, 818, 21 12, 2483, 2514;) 
ilcoper, each other, 1056, cf. 192 1 ; 
on ilke wise, in every way, 1861, 
2959. [OE. ylc.~\ See Ilkan, II- 
ker ? Euer(e)-ilk. 

Ilkan, Ilkon, pron. each one, 
1770, 1842, 2108, 2357. [OE. 
ylc an."] 

like, adj. in fiat ilke, the same, 
the very, 1215, 2674, 2679, &c. 
[OE. ilea.] 

Ilker = Ilk here, each of them, 
2352. [OE. ylc heora.~] 

Ille, adv. ; hire likede Me, it dis- 
pleased her greatly, 1165; ille 
maked, ill-treated, handled rough- 
ly, 1952 ; gouen hem ille, 1. 164, 
see Note. [ON. ill-r, adj. ; ilia, 
adv.] Cf. Yueie. 

I-maked. See Maken. 

In, prep, in, on, 8, 424, &c. [OE. 

Inch, n. inch, 1034. [OE. ynce.] 

Inne, adv. in, 594, 762, 807. 
[OE. innan.] See J>erinne. 

Inow, YnoWj adv. enough, 563, 
706,904,911,931, 1795; Y-nowe, 
pi. 2682. [OE. genoge, oblique 
form of genoh.] 

Intil, prep, unto, into, 128, 
251, &c. [OE. m + ON. til.'] 

In- to, prep, into, to, unto, 203, 
265* 535, 2872, &c. [OE. in-to.] 

Ioie, loye, n. joy, 662, 1107, 
1209, 1237, 1278. 1315, &c. 
[O.Fr. joie.] See Ioyinge. 

loupe, n. a loose jacket, 1767. 

Ioying(e) (MS. Ioynge, 2087), 
11. dat. rejoicing, 2949. [O.Fr. joie 
+ -ing.] 

Is, Ys, 3 sg.pres. indie, is, 5, &c. ; 
hwat is you ? what ails you? 453. 
[OE. is]. See Ms, Am, Ben. 

It, pron. it, 4, &c. ; as antici- 
pated subject it was, &c. = there 
was, 27, &c. ; nis kit, is there not? 

462 ; MS. It = he, 2264 ; for It, 1. 
664, see Note. [OE. hit.] Cf. Et. 

Iuel, adj. poor, bad; iuel(e) 
bone, ill-equipped, in poor condi- 
tion, 2505, ^2525, see Note to 
1. 2505. [OE. yfel, adj.] 

Iuel, Yuel, n. evil, sickness, 114, 
144, 155, 2221; with iuelie) — 
with evil intent, 50, 994, 1689. 
[OE. yfel, n.] 

Iuele, Yuele, adv. evilly, sorely, 
2755 ; iuele like 4- dative of person 
= displease, 132; cf. ille like. 
[OE. yfele.] 

Iustise, n. a justice, 263, 1628, 
2202. [O . Fr. justise. ] 

Kables, cables, thick ropes, 
710. [O.Fr. cable.] 

Kalde. See C alien. 

Kam. See Komen. 

Kandel, n. candle, 585. [OE. 

Kaske, adj. pi. vigorous, active, 
1 84 1. [ON. karsk-r, kask-r.] 

[Kayn (MS.), for payn, 31, 
1327 ; see Introd., p. xxxix.] 

Kaysere. See Cayser(e). 

Keft. See Coupe. 

Keling, n. cod, 757. 

Kerne. See Komen. 

Kempe, n. champion, 1036. 
[OE. cempa, ON. kempaJ] 

Kene, adj. brave, eager, 1832, 
2 11 5. [OE. cene.] 

Kepte, pa. t. sg. watched, kept 
watch for, 879. [OE. cepait.] 

Kesten, Casten, v. to cast, fling, 
81,519,1784,2101,2611 ; Cast(e), 
pa. t. sg. 556, 567, 813; Keste, 
pa. t. pi. 2449. [ON. kasta; for 
the e forms before st cf. Morsbach, 
ME. Gram. § 87, n. 2.] 

Keuel, n. a gag, 547, 637. [ON. 

Keyes, n. pi. keys, 1303. [OE. 

Kichin, n. kitchen, 936. [OE. 
cycene. ] 



Kid, pp. made known, 1060. 
[OE. cypan, pp. cydde.~] 

Kin, Kyn, n. kindred, relatives, 
stock, 414, 2045; Kin, dat.i}.), 
393, see Note. [OE. cynn.~] 

Kindlen, v. to kindle, 915. [To 
ON. kynda.] 

Kineriche (MS. Kinneriche), 
kingdom, 976. [OE. cynerice.] 
See Cuneriche. 

King, n. king, 27,' &c. [OE. 

Kinnes, Kines, gen. sg. in none 
kin(n)es, of no kind, 861, 1140; 
neuere kines, 2691, with the same 
meaning, is a nonce usage. [OE. 
nanes cynnes.~\ See Kin. 

Kippe, v. to seize, snatch, 894 ; 
Kipt(e), pa. t. sg. 1050, 2638; 
kipt tit, pulled out, 2407. [ON. 

Kirke, n. the church, a church- 
building, 36, 1132, 1355, 2583. 
[ON. kirkja.~] 

Kiste, n. dat. chest, coffer, 2018. 
[ON. kista.~\ See Chiste. 

Kiste, pa. t. sg., kissed, 1279; 
K.isten, pa. 2162. [OE. cys- 

Kitte (MS. Citte),/a. t. sg. cut, 
942. [OE. *cyttan (?).] 

Knaue, n. boy, lad, boy-servant, 
308, 409, 450, 458, 949, 1087, 
1 1 23, 1 1 46, &c. [OE. cnafa.~] 
See Horse-knaue. 

Knawe, v. to know, recognize, 
find out, 2207, 2785 ; Kneu, pa. t. 
sg. 2468 ; Knewen, pa. t. pi. 
2149; Knawed, pp. wk. 2057. 
[OE. (ge)cndwan?\ 

Knele, v. to kneel, 1320 ; Kne- 
lede, pa. t. sg. 482. [OE. cneow- 

Knes, n. pi. knees, 451, 1902. 
[OE. cneo.~\ 

Knif, n. a knife, 479, 498, 2484, 
2493, &c. ; Kniue, dat. sg. 2503 ; 
Kniues,//. 1769. [ON. knif-r.~\ 

Kniht, n. knight, 32, 77, 239, 

343, 345, 1068, 2706, &c. [OE, 

Komen, Comen, v. to come, 
arrive, 18, 325, 1001, &c. ; Com- 
eth, Comes, imper. pi. 1798, 1885, 
2247 ; Earn, Cam, Kom,^. /. sg. 
451, 766, 863, 1309, 2622, &c. ; 
Komen, Comen, pa. t. pi. 1012, 
1202, 2790; Kerne, 1208, see 
Note ; Comen, Cumen, pp. 116, 
1436, 1714, 2580, &c. ; comen up, 
2540, landed. \OK. cumanj] 

Kope, Cope, n. cope, cloak, 429, 
1957. [OE. *cape (?), late L. cdpa.] 

Kor(e)n, n. corn, 462, 780, 1879, 
&c. ; korn of bred, bread-corn, 
corn for bread, 825. [OE. corn.'] 

Kradel-barnes, n. pi. children 
in the cradel, 191 2. [OE. cradol+ 
beam or ON. bam.~\ See Bern. 

Krake(n), Crake, v. to crack, 
break, 914, 1857, 1908; Crakede, 
pa. t. sg. 568 ; Kraked, pp. 1238. 
[OE. craczan.] 

KrsLTies, cranes, 1726. [OE. 

Krike, n. creek, a narrow arm 
of the sea, 708. [See N.E.D.] 

Kuneriche, Kunerike. See 

Kunne. See Can. 

Kunrik, n. 2143, in form is equi- 
valent to Norse kynrik-r, but is 
perhaps an error for Kunmerk; 
see Note. 

Kynemerk, n* a birth-mark in- 
dicating royal rank, 604. [OE. 
cyne + mearc.~\ See Kunrik. 

Lac, n. fault, failing, in withuten 
lac, 191, 2219. [Cf. OLG. lak.~\ 

Ladde, n. a serving-man, 1786, 
2493, Sec. ; Laddes, pi. 1015, 
1024, &c. ; Ladden, pi. 1038. 
In the French versions valet is 
used in the same senses. [See 

Lame, adj. lame, 1938. [OE. 
lama, wk. adj.] 



Lamed, pp. maimed, crippled, 
2755. [To prec] 

Large, adj. generous, liberal, 97, 
2941 [O. rr. large .] 

Laste, v. to last, suffice, endure, 
538, 24-7, 2605. [OE. lasstan.] 

Late, adv. late, in to late, 691, 
845 ; Laste, superl. 67S ; at }e 
laste, finally, 637. [OE Iset.] 

Late(n\ v to allow, permit, 4^6, 
1 74 1 ; Lat(e), imper. sg. 17, 1376, 
1772, 2422 ; Lateri, to cease to 
speak, 328 ; lat be, imper. sg. 
desist from, 1265, cf. 1657 ; Laten, 
pp. abated, 240 ; Laten, pp. al- 
lowed to remain, 1925; Late, 
infin. to set, in late rihte, 261 1, 
seems nearer to Norse than Eng- 
lish usage, but rihte may itself be 
infinitive, ' to straighten \ [ON. 
lata.'] See Let. 

Lath, n. injury, 76, 2718, 2976. 
[OE. lad, n.] See Loth. 

Lathe, n. hostility, enmity, 2718, 
2976. Spelling, disyllabic form, 
and rime point to short a. [OE. 

Lauhwe(n), v. to laugh, smile ; 
Lauhwinde, pres. ptc. 946 ; Low, 
pa. t. sg. 903 ; Lowen, pa. t. pi. 
1056. [OE. hl&hhan?\ 

Lauhte, pa. t. took (a name), 
suffered (insult), felt (pain), 744, 
1673 ; Lauhte, pp. 1988. [OE. 

Laumprei, -ey, -ee, n. lamprey, 
771, 897, 1727. [O.Fr. *laum- 

Law, n. law; Lawe, dat. 2815 ; 
Lawes, pi. 28. [ON. *lagu.] 

Lawe, Lowe, adj. low, in heye 
and lowe, 2431, 2471, 2767, 
&c. ; Lowe, adv. 2079. [ON. 

Lax, n. salmon, 754, 896, 1727. 
[OE. lax.] 

Leche, n. a physician, 1836, 
2057. [OE. Isece.] 

Led, n. cauldron, pot (originally 

a pot made of lead) ; cf. Cant. 
Tales, Prologue, 202. [OE. lead.] 

Lede(u), v. to lead, escort, carry, 
245, 320, 2573, &c; Ledde, pa. 
t. sg 1686 ; Ledden, pa. t. pi. 
2451 ; lede{n) ut here, to leaH an 
army to war, 89, 346, 379 ; him 
ledde, lived, managed his affairs, 
785. [OE. Isedan.] 

Lef, Leue (oblique), adj. and n. 
dear, 431, 909; especially in lef 
and loth = beloved and hated, 
friend and foe, 261, 440, 2273, 
2 3 I 3» 2 379j 2775. Lef as a title 
used to superiors or leaders = sir, 
2606 ; cf. Leue, 1885, which per- 
haps = dear (brother) ; Leuere, 
compar. in him were leuere, &c. 
= he would rather (lit. it was pre- 
ferable to him), 1193, 1423, 1671, 
&c. [OE. leof] 

Leidest. See Leyn. 

Leite, v. to seek, 2441, see Note. 
[ON. leita.] 

Lem(m)an, n. dear one, beloved, 
used of both sexes. 1191, 1283, 
131 2, 1322. [OE. leof -man/] 

Leme. See Lime. 

Lende, v. to arrive, land, 733. 
[OE. lendan.] 

Lene,^. to lend, give, 2072. [OE. 

Lenge, n. ling, a kind of fish, 
832. [Apparently connected with 
long, in which case the unpalata- 
lized^* tells against English origin.] 

Lenge, v. to prolong, 1 734, 2363, 
[ON. lengja.] 

Lengere, adv. longer, 809. [Cf. 
OE. lengra, comparative of fang, 
adj.] See Long. 

Leoun, 71. lion, 573, 1867, *2690 
(MS. Leuin). [O.Fr. Hun.] 

Lepe, v. to run, rush, leap, 2006, 
see Note; Lep, pa. t. sg. 891, 
1777, 1942; Lopen, pa. t. pi. 
1896, 2616. [OE. hlSapan^ See 

Ler, n. cheek, 2918. [OE. hleor.] 



Lere(n), v. to instruct, to learn, 
797, 823, 2592. [OE. l&ran.] 
See Y-lere. 

Lese, 3 sg. pres. subj. to free, 
release, 333. [OE. le°san.] 

Lesse, adj. compar. less, 1013. 
[OE. l&ssa.] See Litel. 

Let, pa. t. sg. allowed, caused, 
252, 876, 2062, 2651 ; desisted, 
2447, 2500 ; Leten, pa. t. pi. 
2379. [OE. letan.] See Late(n). 

Leteres, n. pi. ; pise Uteres, this 
inscription, 2481. [O.Fr. letre.~] 

Lette, v. to hinder, prevent, 
1 164, 2253, 2819. [OE. lettan.~] 

Leue, n. leave, permission, 1626, 
2952, &c. ; tok leue at, took leave 
of, bid farewell to, 1387. [OE. 

Leue. See Lef. 

Leue, 3 sg. subj. grant, 334, 
406, 2807. [OE. lef an.] 

Leue, v. to believe ; Leues (on), 
3 sg.pres. indie, believes (in), 17S1, 
2105. [OE. lef an.] 

Leued, pp. left, 225. [OE. 
laefan.] See Bileue. 

Leuedi, n. lady, mistress, 171, 
293, 1 1 20, &c. ; Leuedyes, pi. 
239. [OE. hlsefdige.] 

Leuere. See Lef. 

[Leuin (MS.), n. lightning, 
2690, but probably an error for 
Leun, lion,] 

Lewe, adj. warm, 498, 2921. 
[OE. hleoive.] 

Leyd(e). See Leyn. 

Leye, n. lie, falsehood, 21 17. 
[OE. lyge.] 

Leye, v. 1 sg. pres. indie, lie, 
speak falsely, 2010. [OE. legan.] 

Leyk, n. a game, 102 1, 2326. 
[ON. leih-r.] 

Leyke(n), Layke, v. to play, 
take part in sports, 469, 950, 997, 
1011 ; Leykeden, pa. t. pi. 954. 
[ON. leika.] See Leyk, n. 

Leyn, v. to lay, put ; dede leyn 
in an ore — rowed, 718; Leyde, 

pa. t. sg. in leyde hondon, 50, 994, 
&c. ',fe spec he leyde, became speech- 
less, 229; Leidest, 2 sg. pa. t. 
636 ; Leyden, pa. t. pi. in leyden 
on, laid on, beat upon, 1907 ; 
Leyd,//.4o8, 1689, 2839; spread 
(of a table), 1722. [OE. lecgan.~] 

Lien, adj. like, 2155. [OE. lie.] 

Lif, n. life, 349, 2492, &c. ; 
Liues, pi. 697, &c. ; Liue, dat. 
sg. 281 ; o{n) liue, alive, living, 
281, &c. ; brouht of liue, brought 
out of life, dead, 513, 2129; do of 
liue, to kill, 1805 ; Liues, Lyues, 
gen. sg. as advJ alive, 509, 1003, 
1307, 1919, 2854. [OE. lif'] 

Lift, adj. left (side, &c), 2130, 
2635. [OE.lyft.] 

Liften, v. to lift, 1028, 1030 ; 
Lifte, pa. t. sg. 1806. [ON. 

Ligge(n), v. to lie (down), to be 
(in prison, pain, &c), 330, 802, 
876, 882, 1374. [OE. licgan or 
rather ON. Hggja.] See Lyen. 

Lint, n. light, a light, 534, 576, 
588, &c. [OE. leht, liht.] 

Lint, adj. light, bright, 593. 
[OE. leht, Izht.] 

Liht, adv. lightly, nimbly, 1942. 
[OE. lehte.] 

Liht, v. imper. sg. to light, cause 
to burn, 585. [OE. lihtan?\ 

Like, v. impers. with dat. please, 
132 ; Likede, pa. t. 1165. [OE. 

Lime, Leme, n. limb, in leme or 
lif 2555 {leme with vowel of plural 
OE. leomu) ; a deueles lime, 1409 ; 
of limes spille, castrate, 86. [OE. 

Line, n. line, cord, 539, 782. 
[OE. line, O.Fr. ligne.] 

Lite, adj. little, 1730, 1855, and 
MS. at 276. [OE. lyt.] 

Litel, adj. little, 6, 481, 1858, 
&c. ; Litle,//. 2014. [OE. lytel.] 

Lith, n. 1338, see Note. 

Lith, n. people, in the phrase 



(common elsewhere) lond and 
lith, 2515. [ON. lyd-r.] 

LiJ?es, n. pi. the tips of the toes 
(or fingers), 2163. [OE. lid.'] 

Lipes, Lypes, imper. pi. listen, 
1400, 2204, 2576. [ON. hlydaj] 

Littene, v. to diminish, 2701. 
[To OE. lyt.] See Lite. 

Liue(n), v. to live, 199, 257, 
355, &c. ; Liueden, pa. t. pi. 
1299, 2044; Liued, pp. 2872. 
[OE. libban.] 

Liue(s), Lyues. See Lif. 

Lof, n. loaf, 653. [OE. hid/.'] 

Loke(n), v. to look, behold, see, 
look after, 376, 2136, 2726; Loke, 
imper. sg. 597, 1680, 171 2; Lokes, 2240, 2292, 2300, 2579, 
2812; Lokede,/#. /. sg. 679, 1041. 
[OE. locian.] 

Loken(e), pp. fastened, closed ; 
lokenie) cope(s), closed cape(s) or 
cloak(s), 429, 1957. See Ancren 
Riwle, p. 56, $if he haued enne 
ividne hod and one ilokene cope. 
[OE. lucan.] 

Lond, n. land, country, 64 (see 
Note), 340, 696, 721, 736, &c. 
[OE. land.] 

Long, adj. long, tall (of persons), 
267, 988, 1063, 1648, &c. [OE. 

Long(e), adv. long, for a long 
time, 172, 241, 842, &c. [OE. 

Longes, 3 sg.pres. indie, belongs, 
appertains, 396. [Cf. OE. gelang, 

Lopen. See Lepe. 

Loth, adj. hateful, hated, espe- 
cially in lef and loth, 261, 440, 
&c. [OE. lad.] See Lath. 

Loude, adv. loudly, 96, 2079. 
On loude, 228, see Note. [OE. 
hlude, adv.] 

Loue, n. love, 1761, 2967, 2974, 
&c. [OE. lufu.] 

Louen, v. to love, 1347, &c. ; 
Louede, pa. t. sg. 71, 349, &c. ; 

Louede(n), jto. t. pi. 30, 955, &c. 
[OE. lufian?\ 

Louerd, Lowerd, n. lord, mas- 
ter, 96, 483, 621, Sec, see Notes to 
11. 64, 228. [OE. hldford.] 

Louerdinges, n. lords, rulers 
(with no sense of contempt), 515, 
1 40 1. [OE. hldfording.] 

Loupe, v. to run, rush, 180T. 
[ON. hlaupa.] See Lepe. 

Low(en). See Lauhwe(n). 

Lowe. See Lawe. 

Lowe, n. hill, mountain, 1291, 
1699. [OE. hlaw.] 

Lurken, n. hide, live in conceal- 
ment, sneak away(?), 68. [ON. 

Lorae-drurye, n. love-making, 
courtship, 195. [OE. /^/ + O.Fr. 

Lyen, v. to lie (in bed, &c), 
673, 2134; Lay, pa. U sg. 812; 
Leyen s /#. t. pi. 475, 2132. [OE. 
licgaiz.] See Ligge(n) and Leyn. 

Lype, n. respite, ease, alleviation, 
147. [Cf. OE. Me, adj.] 

Mad. See Maken. 

Maght. See May. 

Make, n. wife, 11 50. [OE. 

Make(n), Mak, v. to make, do, 
cause (with infinitive in passive 
sense as made bynde, 41), 29, 445, 
1 441 , &c. ; Make, imper. sg. 676 ; 
Makede, Made (MS. Maude, 

436, 737), pa- *• sg. 38, 39. 4 1 , 
&c. ; Makeden, Made^n), pa. t. 
pi. 554, 1039, I 9°8, &c. ; Maked, 
PP- 2 3? 365 5 I-maked, pp. 5 ; 
Mad, pp. 1953; ille maked =- 
handled roughly, 1951. [OE. 
Makerel, n. mackerel, 758. 
[O.Fr. maquerel^] 
Male, n. a bag, 48. [O.Fr. male.] 
Malisun, n. curse, malediction, 
426. [O.Fr. maleisun.] 



Man, n. man, 45; Men, pi. 1, 
2, &c. [OE. mann.~] 

Mani(e), adj. many, 244, &c. ; 
mani a (kniht), 1697, &c. [OE. 

Manred(e), n. homage, fealty, 
484, 2172, 2180, 2248, 2265, 2312, 
2774, 2816, 2847, 2850. [OE. 

Marz, n. March, 2559. [O.Fr. 

Mast, n. mast (of a ship), 709, 
986. [OE. meest.] 

Maugre (pin), in spite of (thee), 
1128,1789. [O.Fr. maugre + OE. 
gen. sg. pin.] 

May, v. may, 26, &c. ; Mowe, 
175. 394, 675> &c.; Mowen, 
Moun, pi. 11, 460, 2587, &c. ; 
Maght (MS. commonly Mait, 
Mayt, Mayth), pa. t. sg. 145, 356, 
376, &c. ; Mihte, pa. t. sg. 233, 
&c. ; Mihte (n), pa. t. pi. 516, 
1929, 2017, &c. ; Mouhte, 
Mowhte, pa. t. sg. 210, &c. ; 
Mouhte(n), /#. t. pi. 1183, 2019, 
2039, 2328, 2330, &c. [OE. mseg, 
late subjunctive ^zz^ ; pi. *mugon ; 
pret mashte, mihte, and later muhte.] 

Mayden, ^. maiden, 33, 205, 
467, 995, 2222, &c. ; Maydne, 
dat. 83, 783 ; Maydnes, pi. 2, 
&c. [OE. msegden.] 

Mayster, n. sir, master, chief, 
1135, 2028, 2385. [O.Fr. maistre.] 
[Ma-rt;h) (MS.*), see May.] 

MedB, n. reward, bribe, 102, 119, 
685, 1635, 2402, 2901. [OE. 

Meine, Meyni, household, 
company, 827, 834; added in 65 = 
subjects. [O.Fr. meyne.~\ 

Meke, adj. meek, 945, 1066. 
[ON. mjuk-r earlier ^me'ok-.] 

Mele, n. meal, ground corn, 780. 
[OE. melu.] 

Mele, v. to speak, 2059. [OE. 
me I an j] 

Men, i??ipers. subject, sg. (cf. Fr. 

on), one, 390, 647, 2610, &c. 
[OE. man weakened under re- 
duced stress.] 

Mene, v. to mean, signify, 597, 
21 14. [OE. msrnan.] ,, 

Merci, n. mercy, 96, 271, &c. 
[O.Fr. merci.'] 

Mere, n. mare, 2449, 2504 ; 
Mere, gen. sg. (OE. meran), 2478. 
[OE. mere?[ 

Messe, n. Mass, service of the 
Mass, 243, 1 1 76. [OE. and O.Fr. 

Messe-bok, n. mass-book, 186, 
391, 2710. [Prec<4 0E. doc] 

Messe-gere, n. all things used in 
the service of the Mass, 188, 389, 
1078, 2217. [Messe + ON. gerwi.] 

Mest(e). See Michel. 

Mester, n. trade, business, 823. 
[O.Fr. mester.] 

Met, pp. impers. in me haueth 
met, I have dreamed, 1285. [OE. 

Mete, n. food, dish, provisions, 
146, 317, 459, 649, 883, 2340, &c. 
[OE. mete.] 

Mette,/#. t. sg. met, 1810, 2624. 
[OE. metan.] 

Meyne. See Meine. 

Michel, Mikel (MS. Mik, 2342, 
Mike, 960, 1744, 1 761, 2336), adj. 
much, great, big, tall, 510, 660, 
&c. ; More, comp. 981, &c. ; 
Mest(e), superl. 233, 945 ; Meste, 
pi. 983 ; Moste (with vowel of 
comparative), 423, 2321, &c. ; on 
on pe moste hi I, 1287, see Note, 
and cf. L. unus maximus. [OE. 
?nicel, mdra, msest (late OE. Nth. 

Michel, Mikel, adv. much, 60. 
122, &c. [To prec] See Mo. 

Middel, n. middle, 2092. [OE. 

Middel-niht, n. midnight, 575. 
[OE. middel-niht.] 

Middelerd, n. earth, world, 
2244. [Cf. OE. middaneard?] 



Mint, n. power, 35. [OE. miht.~] 

Minte(n). See May. 

Mik(el). See Michel* 

Milce, n. mercy, 1361. [OE. 

Mile, n. mile, 721, 1831, 2498. 
[OE. mtl.] 

Milk, n. milk, 643. [OE. milc.~] 

Milne-hous,/z. mill, 1967. [OE. 
my ten + hus.] 

Mine, n. a game played with 
dice, a kind of backgammon, 
2326. In French romances, as here, 
coupled with hasard; seeGodefroy, 
Diet. s.v. Mine. [O.Fr. mine.'] 

Miracle, n. a wonder, miracle, 
500. [O.Fr. miracle.'] 

Mirke, adj. wk. dark, 404. 
[ON. myrk-r.] 

Misdo, v. to do wrong, injure, 
offend ; Misdede, pa. t. sg. 337, 
992, 1371; Misdo, pp. 2798. 
[OE. misdon.] 

Misferde, pa. t. sg. ; misferde 
with, did wrong to, harmed, at- 
tacked, 1869. [OE. misferan.] 
See Ferde. 

Misgos, 2 sg. pres. indie, act 
wickedly, 2707. [OE. mis+gdn.] 

Misseyde, pa. t. sg. insulted, 49, 
*993; Misseyd, pp. 1688. [OE. 
mis + secgan.] 

Mipe, Mythe, v. conceal, 652, 
948, 1278. [OE. mzdan.] 

Mixed, adj. filthy, 2533 (a nonce 
usage). [To OE. mix.] 

Mo, adj. comp. more (in number), 
1742, 1846. [To next.] 

Mo, adv. more ; neuere mo, 511, 
beside neuere more, 488, 493, &c. 
[OE. ma, comp. adv.] 

Mod, n. mood, spirit, 1703. [OE. 

Moder, n. mother, 974, 1388, 
&c. [OE. 7?iodor.] 

Mone, n. moon, 403, 1314, &c. ; 
under mone, in the world, 373. 
[OE. mona.] 

Mone, 71. dat. opinion, in bimine 

mone, 816; cf. OHG. bithia meina. 
[OE. *man.] 

Mone, 1 pi. pres. indie, must, 
840. [ON. munu.] 

Mon(e)kes, n. pi. monks, 243, 
360, 2584; monekes Make , 2521, 
would normally mean Benedictine 
monks; but see Note. [OK.munuc.] 

Mone-liht, n. moonlight, light 
of the moon, 534. See Mone and 

More. See Michel. 

Morwen, n. morrow, next morn- 
ing, 811, 1131, 2669, &c. [OE. 
morgen.] See To-morwen. 

Moste. See Michel. 

Mote, pres, subj. may, 19, 406, 
1743,2545; Moten, pi. 18. [OE. 
mot, pret. pres.] 

Mouhte. See May. 

Moun. See May. 

Moup(e), n. mouth, 113, 433, 
&c. [OE. miip.] 

Mo we. See May. 

Mowe, v. to mow, 1852. [OE. 

Naked, adj. naked, 6, 853, 1949, 
1953. [OE. naeod.] 

INTam. See Nime. 

Name, n. name, 342, &c. On 
Name, 1397, 2 5 2 9> see Note to 
1397. [OE. nama.] 

Named,//, named, called, 1751. 
[To prec] 

Namore, Na more, adv. no 
more, 2363, 2530. [OE. nd7ndre.] 

*Nauen (MS. Name), n. name, 
1397 {see Note), 2529. [ON. 

Nayl, 7i. nail, spike ; nail (of 
the hand or foot), 712, 857, 2163. 
[OE. nae,gl.] 

Ne, neg. part. 49, &c; not, 57, 
&c. ; and not, 148, &c. ; nor, 66 ; 
MS. Ne = neither . . . nor, 548. 
[OE. ne.] 

Neeke, n. neck, 1822, 1823, 
2046. [OE. hnecca.] 

L 2 



Nede, n. need, necessity, 9, 25, 
87, 1692, &c. [OE. ned.) 

Neme. See Nime. 

Wer, adv. near, nearly, 990, 1949. 
[ON. nser, comp.; OE. near, comp.] 

Wese, n. nose, 2450 ; and see 
Note to 1 91 7. Cf. Nose. 

Wesh, Weysh, adj. soft, tender, 
217, 2743. [OE. hnesce.~] 

Wet, n. fishing-net, 752, 783. 
[OE. nett.~] 

Wet, n. ox, 808, 1026, 1891 ; 
Wet,//, cattle, 700, 1222 ; Wetes, 
gen. sg. 781. [OE. neat.^ 

Nepelea 9 conf. nevertheless, 1108, 
1658. [OE. nepe ises.] 

Weue, n. fist, 191 7, 2405. [ON. 

Weu(e)re, adv. never, not, 80, 
625, &c. ; neuere a polk, not a 
single pool, 2685 ; neuere kines — 
none kines, of no kind, 2691. [OE. 

IN ewe, adj. new, 263, 2461. [OE. 
neowe.~\ See Span-newe. 

Wewhen, v. to come near, 1866. 
[OE. nehwian.~] 

Wey, adv. nigh, nearly, 464, 640. 
[OE. nek.~] See Ner. 

Weysh. See Nesh. 

Weyber, neither of two, 2970; 
Weyber . . . ne = neither . . . nor, 
458, 764, &c. [OE. ne + segder.] 
See Noy])er, Noper and Ayj>er, 

Wiht, n. night, 404, 533, 575, 
1247, 1754, 2669, 2999, Sec. ; 
Wihtes, gen. sg. 2100; Wihtes, 
adv. gen. sg. by night, 2353. [OE. 

Wihtertale, n. dead of night, 
2025 ; cf. Canterbury Tales, Pro- 
logue, 1. 97. [Remodelling of ON. 
ndttar-pel where ndttar is gen. sg.~] 

Nime, v. to take, to go, ^1336 
{see Note), 1931, 2600; Wimes, 
imper. pi. 2594; Warn, pa. t. sg. 
900, 1947, 2930 ; Women, pa. t. 
pL took, 2790; Weme, pa. t. pi. 

went, 1 207 {see Note) ; Weme, 
pret. subj. sg. 2201; Women, 
lumen, pp. 2265, 2581. [OE. 

Wis, v. is not, 462, 1998, 2244. 
[OE. nis = ne + is.~] 

Noble, adj. noble, 1263, 1943. 
[O.Fr. noble.'] 

Woblelike, adv. nobly, 2640. 
[Prec. + OE. -lice.~] 

Wok, n. corner, small part, in 
aferthinges nok, 820 {see Note). 

Woman, nobody, 223. [OE. nan 

Women. See Nime. 

Wo(n), adj. and pron. no, none, 
nobody, 518, 685, 864, 934, 974, 
1 019, &c. ; he nan, none of them, 
2 200, is possibly for he[f] non, OE. 
heora nan ; for none kines, see 
Kinnes. [OE. ndn.~] 

Worb, adv. adj. and n. north, 
434> 7 2 4> 734- [OE. nor&.'] 

Wose, n. nose, 2823. [OE. nosa.~] 
See Nese. 

Wote, Woute, n. nut, 419, 1332. 
[OE. hnutu.~\ 

Wober. See NoyJ>er. 

Wou,Wu,#flfe>.now, 11,328, 1362, 
2421, 2460, 2650, &c. [OE. nuJ\ 

[Wouht = ne ouht (?), ought 
not (?), 801, see Note.] 

Wouht, Wowht, n. and adv. 
nothing, naught, not at all, 249, 
505, 566, 648, 770, 1733, 2051, 
2168, 2737, 2822, &c. [OE. 
ndwiht, naht, nokt.~\ 

Woute. See Note. 

Woyber, Wober, with following 
ne = neither . . . nor, 2623, 2697. 
[OE. ndhwseper, nohwxper, &c] 
See Ney]?er. 

Wumen. See Nime. 

Wunnes, n. pi. nuns, 2584. [OE.- 

Wyne, Wine, adj. nine, 871, 
1010. [OE. nigen.] 

Wytte, v. to use, 941. [OE. 


I 49 

O. See On. 

Of, prep, of, 14, 47, &c ; from, 
off, 92, 216, 857, 1850, 2599, &c. ; 
from among, 71 ; concerning, on 
account of, 5, 23, 121, 123, 837, 
849, 1664, &c. ; don of = do con- 
cerning, do with, 130, 2423. [OE. 
of] See Of, Of-, Offe. 

Of, adv. off, 603, 2626, &c. [OE. 

[Offe (MS.), prep, extended form 
of Of, 435 ; cf. Onne. See J>eroffe, 

Of-fleye, v. fly off, 2751. [OE. 
of+fegan.] See Fleye. 

Offrende, n. offering, 1386. 
[O.Fr. offrende.] 

Of-plette, v. strike off, cut off, 
2444 ; Of-plat,/a. t. sg. 2755 5 c ^ 
of. . .plette, 2626. See Platte(n). 

Of-slawen, pp. struck off, 2676. 
See Slo. 

Of-spring, n. offspring, 2565. 
[OE. of spring.] 

Oft(e), adv. often, 214, 226, 227, 
884, &c. [OE. of.] 

Ok, adv. and conj. also, 187, 
200, 879, to8i, &c. [ON. auk.] 

Old, adj. old, 192, 259, 417; 
Olde =-- former, 2460; Olde, pi. 
30, 956, &c. [OE. d/d.] See 

Oliue. See Lif. 

On, adj. one, 425, 761, 1800, 
2028, 2263, &c. [OE. an.] See 
A, One. 

On, O f prep. on, in ; bok, on the 
book, 2307, 231 1 ; londe, on {or 
in) land, 763 ; knes, on (his) 
knees, 2252, 2796; dones on, put 
them on, 970 ; niht, in the night, 
1 25 1 ; on nihtes, at night, 2048; 
o worde, in the world, 1349; on 
lesse hwile, in less time, 1830; 
mani wise, in various wise, 171 3 ; 
on two, on to, in two, 471, 1823, 
2730 ; on brenne, to a blaze, 1239 ; 
on hunting, a-hunting, 2382. In 
wel bone, &c, 2355, 2505, &c, 

it seems to be substituted for ON. 
of [OE. on.] See Onne. 

One, adj. alone, 1153, 1710, 
1742, 1973, 2433 ; (at) him one, 
(all) by himself, alone, 815, 936. 
[OE. ana.] See On, adj. 

Ones, adv. gen. sg. once ; al at 
ones = all at once, 1295. [OE. 
dnes.] See On, adj. 

Onlepi. See Anlepi. 

[Onne (MS.), prep, on, in, ex- 
tended adverbial form oi On, prep., 
placed after the word governed, 
347,2105. See next.] 

Onne, adv. on, 1675, 1689, 1940, 
extended adverbial form of On, 

Onon, On-on. See Anon. 

Open, adj. open, 1782, 1796. 
[OE. open.] 

Or, adv. before, 728, 1043, 1044, 
&c. ; or ouht longe, before long, 
1789; conj. 417, 1356, 1688, &c. 
[ON. dr.] See Ere, and Are dawes. 

Ore, n. mercy, grace, 153, 211, 
H43, 2 797- [OE. dr.] 

Ore, n. oar, 711,718, 1871. [OE. 

Oth, oath, 260, 313, 2009 (see 
Note), 2013, 2231, 2272. ¥ ox hold 
opes, 2781, &c., see Hold. For 
Oth, 2526, see Note. [OE. dp.] 

Oth, n. promise, 2526, see Note. 
[OE. hat.] 

Oper(e) (MS. often ope, which 
is to be expanded ope(r) rathei 
than opere), adj. other, 518, 861, 
1784, 1986, 2413, 2416, 2970, &c. ; 
non oper, not otherwise, 2490 ; 
second, next, 879, 1690, 1755, &c. 
[OE. oper.] See To>er. 

Oper, conj. either, or, 94, 787, 
&c. On Oper, 2970, see Note. 
[OE. ohwa&per, dhwszper, awper^] 
See Ay]>er, Noyper. 

Oner, prep, over, above, beyond, 
293, 1053, &c. [OE. ofer.] 

Oueral, adv. everywhere, 38, 54. 
[OE. ofer all.] 



Ouerfare, v. to cross, pass over, 
pass away, 1378, 2063. [OE. 
of erf ar an!] 

Ouer-ga, Ouer-go, in let ouer-ga 
(otk), neglected, disregarded, 314, 
2220. [OE. ofergan.] 

Ouergange, v. to conquer, 2587. 
[OE. ofergangan.~] 

Ouertake, v. overtake, come up 
with, 1856, 2695 ; Ouertok,/a:. /. 
sg. 1816. [OE. ^r + ON. taka.] 

Ouer-J?wert, adv. crosswise, 
2822. [OK^ + ON.^r^.] 

Ouht, n. any space (of time), 
anything, 1189, 1789; J>at ouht 
douhte ~ that was worth anything, 
703. [OE. owiht, dwiht.] See 
Nouht, Wiht, n. 

Oune, adj. wk. and pi. own, 
375, 2428. [OE. dgen.] 

Oure, n. dat. shore, 321 ; cf. 'to 
J)an castle of Deoure on }>ere sse 
oure', La3amon, 1. 3117. [OE. 

Page, n. page-boy, 1730. [O.Fr. 

Palfrey, n. saddle-horse (as dis- 
tinct from a charger), 2060. [O.Fr. 

Panier, n. basket, 760, 805, 813. 
[O.Fr. panier.] 

Pappes, n. pi. breasts, in bi pe 
pappes = down to the breasts, 2132. 
[Norse dialects pappe.] 

Parlement, n. parliament, 1006, 
1 1 79. [O. Fr. parlement.] 

Parred, pp. confined, fastened 
in, barred in, 2439. [OE. *pear- 
rian (?).] 

Parted,//, parted, 2962. [O.Fr. 

Passe, v. pass, cross, 1376. 
[O.Fr. passer.] 

Pastees, n. pi. pasties, 644. 
[O.Fr. pastee.] 

Paternoster, n. the Lord's 
Prayer, so called from the first 
words of the Latin, 2997. 

Pateyn, n. paten, the plate used 
in the service of the Mass, 187. 
[O.Fr. *pateine.] 

PaJ>e, n. dat, path, road, 2381, 
2390; Papes,//. 268. [OE.pmd.] 

Patriark[e], n. dat. patriarch, 
428. [O.Fr. patriarche!] 

Payed,//, satisfied, content, 184. 
[O.Fr. paler.] 

Pelle, v. go, hurry forth, hasten, 

Peni, n. penny, coin, 2147; 
Penies, //. 776, 1172 ; to pe peni 
droit, turned into money, 705. 
[OE. penigT] 

Per, n. peer, equal, 989, 2241, 
2792. [O.Fr. per.] 

Pike, v. to stop (the seams of 
a ship) with pitch, 707. [OE. 

Pine, n. torment, pain, 405, 540, 
1374. [OE. pin.] 

Pine, v, to torment, cause pain, 
1958. [OE. pinian.] 

Piping, n. playing on the pipe, 
2325. [To OE. pipe.] 

Place, n. place, 743. [O.Fr. 

Platte(n), v. to strike, to hasten ; 
Plattinde, pres.ptc. 2282 ; Plette, 
pa. t. sg. 2626 ; Plette, pa. t. pi. 
2613. [OE. pl&ttan.] See Of- 

Plawe, v. to play, 950. [OE. 
(Nth.) plagian.] See Pleye. 

Playees, n. pi. plaice, 896. 
[O.Fr. plaisie).] - 

Pleinte, Pleynte, n. complaint, 
134, 2961. [O.Fr. plainte.] 

Plenty, n. plenty, 1173, T242, 
1729. [O.Fr. plente.] 

Plette. See Platte (n). 

Pleye, v. to play, 951. [OE. 
pleg(J)an.] See Plawe. 

Pliht, n. harm, damage, 1370, 
2002. [OF. pliht.] 

Plow, n. dat. plough, 10 1 7. [OE. 
*plog~ (oblique), cf. 0~N. plog-r.] 

Poke, n. a bag, 555, 769, 780. 



Poles, n. pi. pools, ponds, 2101. 
[OE. pol.] 

Polk, n. pool, puddle, 2685. 
[Diminutive oipol.'] 

Pope, n. pope, 428. [OE. pdpa^] 

Pou(e)re (u = v), adj. poor, 58, 
101, 2457, &c. [O.Fi. povre.~] 

Pourelike, adv. wretchedly, 
poorly, 323. [Prec. + OE. lzce.~\ 

Prangled, pp. pressed, 639. [Cf. 
ME. prangen, to pinch.] 

Preie, Preye, v. to pray, ask, 
169, 1440; Prey, imper. sg. 1343; 
Preide, Prey(e)de, pa. t. sg. 
209, 211 ; Preyden,/#. t. pi. 153. 
[O.Fr. preier^ 

Prest, n. priest, 33, 243, 429, 
1029,1829,2583. [OE. preost.~\ 

Preyse, v. to praise, 60. [O.Fr. 

Pride, n. pride, 2946. [OE. 

Priken, v. to spur a horse, ride 
briskly, 2639. [OE. prician.~] 

Priorie, n. priory, 2522, 2581. 
[O.Fr. priorie.~] 

Pris, n. worth, 283. [O.'Fx.pris.'] 

Prud, adj. proud, 302. [O.Fr. 

Pund, n. pound (of money), 
2615; Pund, pi. 1633. [OE. 

Put, n. cast, throw, 1055. [See 

Putten, v. to put, throw, to 
thrust (with a weapon), 1033, 
1044, io 5 t '■> Putte, pa. t. sg. 
1052; Putten (MS. Pulten, 1023), 
1 03 1, 1844. [OE. *putian.~] 

Putting, Puttingge, n. putting 
the stone, 1042, 1057, 2 3 2 4~ L To 

Pyment, n. spiced wine, 1728. 
[O.Fr. piment^ 

Quaked, pa. t. sg. trembled, 
quaked, 135. [OE. cwacian.~] 

Qual, n. w T hale, 753. [OE. 

Quan(ne), adv. 134, 204, 240, 
&c. [OE. hwanne.~] See Hwan(ne). 

Quath, Quod (MS. Hwat, 1650, 
&c. ; Wat, 595; Quodh, 1800; 
Quot, 1954; Couth (wilh absorp- 
tion of w), 606), pa. t. sg. quoth, 
said, 606, 642, 1878, 1888, &c. 
On 1. 1674 see Note. [OE. cwedan.] 

Queme, adj. pleasing, agreeable, 
I 3°> 393* [OE, {ge)cweme.~\ 

Quen(e), n. queen, 183, 293. 
[OE. cw2n.~\ 

Qui. See Hwi. 

Quie, Quik, adj. alive, 612, 613, 
2476, &c. ; pe day pat he was quik 
and ded, the day he died, 1405 
{see Note), 2210; Quike,//. 1348, 
ready, active. Adv. in al quic 
wede, gallop furiously, excitedly, 
2641. [OE. cwicj] 

Quiste, n. will, bequest, 218, 
365. [OE. *cwzss, to cwe$an.~] 

Quod. See Quath. 

Radde. See Rede. 

Ran. See Renne. 

Rank (MS. Rang), adj. proud, 
presumptuous, 2561. [OE. ranc!\ 

Rath, n. counsel, advice, help, 
75 ; me to rape, lit. for a plan to 
me, 2542. See Note to 11. 360-1 
for Rap replaced by Red. [ON. 
rd$.~\ See Red. 

Rathe, Rothe,z>. to advise, 1335, 
2817; for its replacement by 
Rede(n) j^Note to 11. 360-1. [ON. 

Rape, Rathe, adv. quickly, 
readily, 358, 2380, 2391, &c. 
[OE. tirade."] 

Recke, v. to care, in dapeit hwo 
recke — a curse on him who cares, 
2047,2511. [OE. rec{c)an.~\ 

Red, adj. red, red-haired, 1262, 
1686; Rede, wk. 1397. [OE. 

Red, n. advice, counsel, plan, 
remedy, help, 148, 180, 518, 826, 
1194, 1204, 1833, 287 1 ; me to 

I 5 2 


rede, lit. for a plan to me. See 
Note to 11. 360-1. [OE. red.'] 

Rede(n), v. to advise, direct, 104, 
361 (see Note), 687 ; Reden, to 
read, 244 ; Radde, pa. t. sg. 
advised, 1353 ; cf. Note to 360-1. 
[OE. redan ; but the pret. forms 
prove Anglian & beside e; cf. 

Beft(e). See Reue. 

Regne, v. to continue a course of 
action, hold sway, 2586. [O.Fr. 

Renne, v. to run, 1161, 183 1, 
1 904 ; Ran, pa. t. sg. 216 ; ran on 
blode, ran with blood, bled, 432. 
[ON. renna.~] 

Rest, n. rest, sleep, 145, 943. 
[OE. rest.] 

Reue, n. magistrate, justice, 
1627. [OE. gerefa.] 

Reue(n), v. to take away, de- 
prive, rob, 480, 2590, 2991 ; Refte, 
pa. t. sg. 94, 2223, 2394, 2485; 
Reft, pp. 1367, 1672, 2004, 2483. 
[OE. reajian.] 

Reueres, n. pi. robbers, 2104. 
[OE. reafere.] 

Re we, v. to have pity, 967 ; 
impers. in bigan him forto rewe, 
he was touched with pity, 497 ; 
Rewede, pa. t. impers. 503. [OE. 

Rewnesse, Reunesse, n. pity, 
502, 2227. [OE. hreownes(se).] 

Ribbes, n. pi. ribs, 1900. [OE. 

Riehe, adj. rich, wealthy, sump- 
tuous, 138, 237, 1762, 2940, &c. 
[O.Fr. riche.] 

Richelike, adv. richly, 421. 
[Prec. + OE. lice.'] 

Riden, v. to ride, 10, 26, &c. 
[OE. ?'idan.] 

Rig, n. back, 1775. [ON. 

Riht, n. right, justice, due, 36, 
7i? 395j 1099? r 383> 2717 ; to riht, 
properly, 109. [OE. rikt,] 

Riht(e), adj. (1) right (side, &c), 
604, 1 81 2, 2140, &c. ; Rihte, 
wk. 2545, 2725 ; (2) just, right- 
ful, direct, 772, 846, 1201, 2235, 
2473, &c. [OE. rikt.] 

Riht(e), adv. rightly, right, 
exactly, just, straight (?), 420, 872, 
1701, 2494, 2596, 2611, &c. 

*Rihtwise, adj. pi. righteous, 
37. [OE. riktwis.] 

Rike, n. kingdom, 290. [OE. 
rice, ON. riki.] See Cuneriche, 

Rime, Rym, n. a poem, tale in 
verse, 21, 23, 2995, 2998. [O.Fr. 

Ring, n. ring, finger-ring, ring in 
a coat of mail, 1632, 1637, 2740. 
[OE. hring.] 

Ringen, v. to ring (a bell), 242, 
1 1 06; Ringes, 3 sg. pres. indie. 
390; Rungen, pp. 1132. [OE. 
hringan, wk. pret. hringde.] 

B,iippe,n.dat. basket, 893. [ON. 

Rise(n), v. to rise, 2203 ; *Ris, 
imper. sg. 597 ; Ros, pa. t. sg. 
1955. [OE. risan.] 

Ritte, v. to cut, slash, 2495. 
[Cf. OHG. rizzen.] 

Robben, v. to rob, 1958. [O.Fr. 

Robberes (MS. Wrobberes), n. 
pi. robbers, 39. [Prec. + OE. -ere.] 

Rode, n. dat. the Cross, 103, 
i35> 43i ? 1357, &c. [OE. rod.] 

Rof, n. roof, 2082. [OE. hrof.] 

Romanz-reding, n. romance- 
reading, 2327. [O.Fr. romanz + 
OE. reding.] See Reden. 

Rome, n. Rome ; to Rome, as 
far as Rome, between here and 
Rome, 64, see Note. 

Rop, n. rope, 783, 2507. [OE. 

Rore, v. to roar, 2497, 2499 '■> 
Rorede, pa. t. sg. 2438. [OE. 

Rose, n. rose, 2919. [O.Fr. rose.] 



Boser,^. rose-bush, 2919. [O.Fr. 

rosier, *roser.~] 

Rothe. See Rathe. 

Rowte, v. to roar, 191 1. [ON. 

Runci, n. a nag, saddle-horse, 
2569; cf. Canterbury Tales, Pro- 
logue, 390. [O.Fr. runci.] 

Rungen. See Ringen. 

Rym. See Rime. 

Salte, adj. weak, salt, 1305. 
[OE. salt] 

Salue, n. salve, healing ointment, 
1835. [O.Fr. salve.] 

Samen, adv. together, 467, 979, 
1 717. [OE. * samen.] 

Samened, pp. united, 2890. 
[OE. samnian.] 

Sare. See Sore. 

Saue, adj. safe, ^560, 2226. 
[O.Fr. *save (?).] 

Sauteres, n. pi. psalters, a term 
applied not only to the whole 
psalter, but to smaller groups of 
psalms such as the Penitential 
Psalms, 244. [O.Fr. sautere.] 

Sawe(n). See Se(n), v. 

Say. See Seyen, Se(n), v. 

Sayse, v. to take possession of 
(land), to give possession (in land), 
invest (always in a legal sense), 
251, 2518; Seysed, pa. t sg. 
2931; Seysed,//. 2513. [O.Fr. 
saisir, seisir.] 

Scabbed,*Skabbed, adj. scabby, 
2449, 2505. [To O.Danish skab.] 

Scape, n. injury, harm, 269, 
1352. [ON. skadi.] 

Schal. See Shal. 

Sche. See She. 

Seho. See Sho. 

S(c)hoten, Schuten. See Sho- 

Schrifte, n. shrift, 1829. [OE. 
serif t] See Shriue(n). 

Schulle, n. plaice, 759. [OLG. 

n. sea, 535, 719, 784, &c. ; 

gen. sg. 321. [OE. sue.] 
Se(n), v. to see, 168, 534, 102 1, 
1217, 1273, &c. ; Say, pa. t sg. 
881 ; Saw, Sau, pa. t. sg. 476, 
2410 ; Sawe, Sowe, pa, t subj. 
1323; Sawen, Sowen, pa. t pi. 

957, io 55> 22 55- Tne ori S in of 
the Sawe(n), Sowen forms is not 
clear. [OE. seon.] 

Seckes, sacks, 2019. [ON. 

Segges, n. pi. cuttle-fish (?), 896. 
[O.Fr. seche {}.).] 

Sei. See Seyen. 

Seint, ». saint, 177, &c. [O.Fr. 

Seis. See Se, n. 

Seken, v. to seek ; MS. Seken, 
1629; Souhte, pa. t. 1085. [OE. 
sec an.] 

Sele, n. seal, 755. [OE. selh, 

Self, adj. in you- self, 2425, 2595; 
me self 123 ; miself, 1931 ; God 
self, 245 ; God him-selue, 4.32. 
[OE. self] 

Seli, adj. innocent, 477, 499. 
[OE. (ge)s&lig.] 

Selkouth, Selc(o)uth, n. won- 
der, 124, 1059, 2 1 19. [To next.] 

Selkuth, adj. wondrous, strange, 
1284. [OE. sel(d)cftj>.] 

Selle(n), v. to sell, 53, 763, 
&c. ; Solde, pa. t sg. 699, 703, 
817; Sold, //. 775, 1638. [OE. 

Selthe, n. happiness, prosperity, 
1338. [OE. s&ld.] 

S enabling, verbal n. assembling, 
gathering, 1018. [To O.Fr. sem- 

Seme(n), v. to suit or fit in ap- 
pearance, to seem, impers. with 
dat 2916; Semede, pa. t. sg. 
976, 978, 1649, & c - [ON. sosma.] 

Sende(n), v. to send, 523, 2392 ; 
Sende, pa. t sg. 136, 358, &c. ; 
Sent,//. 1 1 80. [OE. sendan.] 



Sene, adj. evident, 656. [OE. 

Serga(u)nz, Seriaunz, n. pi. 
attendants, retainers, 1929, 2066, 
2088, 2091, 2166, 2361, 2371. 
[O.Fr. sergant, serjaunt.'] See 

Serges. See Cerges. 

Serk, n. shirt, 603. [ON. serk-r.~] 

Semen, v. to serve, deserve, 
1230, 2522; Seruede, pa. t. pi. 
19 14. [O.Fr. servir.'] 

Set(en). See Site. 

Sette, v. to set, place, appoint, 
allot; to set (of the sun), 266,2612, 
2671 ; Sette, pa. t. sg. 2571 ; on 
knes him sette, kneeled, 451 ; Set- 
ten, pa. t. pi. 1 2 1 1 ; Set, pp. 907 ; 
neues under her nes[es] set, 191 7, 
see Note, and cf. sette a dint, gave 
a blow, 2406. [OE. setlan.'] 

Seuene, adj. seven, 2125. [OE. 

Seuentenpe, adj. seventeenth, 
2559. [OE. seofonteodaJ] 

Seyen, Sei, v. to say, speak, 
647, 2008, 2886, &c. ; *Say we 
(MS. Sawe), 338 ; Seyde,pa. t. sg. 
117, 159, &c. ; Seyde(n), pa. t. 
pi. 376, 382, 456, 1213; Seyd, 
Seid, pp. 1281, 1786, 2993, &c. 
[OE. secgan.~\ See Misseyde. 

Seyl, Sayl, n. sail, 711, 854, 
858,2507. [OE. segl.~] 

Seysed. See Saysed. 

Shal, Schal (MS. Sal, 628), v. 
shall, 21, 1 15 1, &c. ; Shaltu, 
-tou, -tow, 2 sg. with affixed pro- 
noun, pu, pou, 1322, 1800, 2180, 
2186, 2882, 2901; Shol, 1 sg. 
subj. 1782; Shole(n), pi. 562, 
621, 645, 1127, I2 3°> 1640, 1788, 
&c. ; Shul we, pi. 328 ; Shule 
ye, pi. 2419; Shulen, pi. 731, 
747, &c. ; Shulde, pa. t. sg. 245, 
*I079, &c -; Sholde, pa. t. sg. 
190, 297, 2712 ; Shulden, pa. t. 
pi. 941 ; Sholden, jta. t. pi. 1020. 
[O.E. sceal (pret. pres.) ; sculon, 

sceolon pi.; sceolde, sculde pret. sg.] 

Shalt(o)u. See Shal. 

Sham(e) (MS. Same, 1956), n. 
shame, 56, 83, 799, 2424, 2461, 
&c. [OE. seamu^] 

Shamed, pp. shamed, 2754. 
[OE. scamian.~] 

Shamelike, adv. shamefully, 
disgracefully, 2462, 2825, 2827. 
[OE. scamlueJ] 

Shankes, n. pi. legs, shanks, 
1903. [OE. scanca.~] 

Shape (n), v. to shape, create ; 
Shop,/#. /. sg. 1 10 1 ; S(c)haped, 
pp. 424, 1647. [OE. sc$ppan, pp. 

Shar, pa. t. sg. cut, 141 3. [OE. 
see ran."] 

Sharpe, adj. pi. sharp, 2322, 
2645. [OE. seearp.~] 

Shawe, Shauwe, Showe, v. to 
show, declare, ^1401, 2206; to 
see, 2 784. See Shewe, with which 
there is much confusion in rimes. 
[OE. seedwian.~] 

She, Sche, pron. nom. sg. fern. 
she, 174, 175, 1 72 1, &c. [See 
N.E.D.] See Sho. 

Sheld, n. shield, 489, 624, 1653, 
&c. [OE. seeld.~] 

Shende, v. to shame, injure, 
destroy, 1422; Shente, pa. t. sg. 
2749; Shend, pp. 2845. [OE. 

Shep, n. pi. sheep, 700; Shepes, 
gen. sg. 781. [OE. seep J] 

Sheres, n. shears, 857. [OE. 

Shewe, Sheue, v. to see, exam- 
ine, 1853, see Note; MS. Sheue, 
1 40 1 ; Shewed, pp. 2056 {see 
Note). [OE. seeawian.~] See 

S hides, n. pi. pieces of wood 
split thin, 917. [OE. seid.~] 

Shilde, 3 sg. pres. subj. shield, 
protect, 16. [OE. seildan.~] 

Shine, v. to shine, 404 ; Shon, 
pa. t. sg. 2144. [OE. setnan.~] 



Ship, n. ship, 706, 735. [OE. 

Shir, adj. bright, 588, 916, 1253, 
&c. [OE. scir.] 

Shireue, Schireue, n. sheriff, 
266, 2286. [OE. scir-gerefa.] 

Shirte, n. shirt, tunic, 768. 
[OE. scyrte.] 

Sho, v. to provide with shoes, 
1138; Shod, pp. 971. [OE. 
sco(i)an.] See Shon, n. 

Sho, Boho, pron. 3 sg.fem. nom. 
she, 112, 126, 649, &c. See 

Shof,^*. t. sg. shoved, 871, 892. 
[OE. scilfan.] 

Shol(en), Sholden. See Shal. 

Sholdre, Shuldre, n. shoulder, 
604, 1262, 2738; Sholdres, pi. 
1647, 181 8 ; Shuldren,//. 982 in 
bi pe shuldren more, higher by 
head and shoulders. [OE. sculdor.~\ 
See Shuldre-blade, Shuldreden. 

Shon, n. pi. shoes, 860, 969. 
[OE. sco(h).] 

Shon. See Shine. 

Shop. See Shape (n). 

Shoten, Schoten, Sehuten, pa. 
t. pi. assailed (with missiles), 
1864; rushed (at), 1838, 2431. 
[OE. see tan.] 

Shrede, n. fragment, morsel of 
food, 99. [OE. screade.] 

Shride. See Shrud. 

Shride, v. to clothe, put on, 
wear, 963 ; Shrid, pp. clad, 978. 
[OE. scry dan.] 

Shriue(n), v. to shrive, hear 
confess, 212, 362; Shriue(n), 
pp. 227, 364, 2489, 2598. [OE. 
serif an.] 

Shrud, n. clothing, 303. [OE. 

Shul(en), Shulde. See Shal. 

Shuldre(n). See Sholdre. 

Shuldre-blade (MS. Shudre-), 
n. dat. shoulder-blade, 2644. 
[OE. sculdor+blxd.] 

Shuldreden, ^z. shouldered, 

jostled, nudged, 1056. [To OE. 

Sibbe, adj. related, akin, 2277. 
[OE. sibb.] 

Side, Syde, n. side (of the body), 
127,1980,2130; Sides, pi. 1850; 
Siden,pl. 371. [OE. side.'] 

Sike, v. to sigh, 291. [OE. si- 
can. ~\ See Siking. 

Sikerlike, adv. surely, assuredly, 
422, 625, 2301, 2707,2871. [OE. 

Sikernesse, n. surety, guaran- 
tees, 2856. [OE. sicor+nes(se).] 
Siking, n. sighing, 234. [To 
OE. sican.] See Sike. 

Siluer, n. silver, money, 73, 
8 1 8, 1223. [OE. siolfor, sylfur.] 
Simenels, n. pi. a kind of bread 
or cake : si?nenels with pe horn, 
779 ; see Horn. [O.Fr. simenel.~] 
Singen, v. to sing, chant, 243, 
391. [OE. singan.] 

Sinne, n. sin, 536, 2461, &c. ; 
pity, 1976, 2375, 2627. [OE. 

Sire, Syre, n. lord, sir, 310, 
909, 1229, 2009, &c. [O.Fr. sire.] 
Sister, n. sister, 411, 12 31, 1365, 
&c. [ON. systir.] 

Site, Sitte, v. to sit, to lie (of a 
ship), 366, 1316, 2098, 2809 ; Sat, 
pa. t. sg. 399, 566, 735, 2344, & c - ; 
Seten,/#. t. pi. 1738, 1766; Set, 
pp. 162 ; site on knes, to kneel, 
2709. On MS. Sat, pa. t. sg. op- 
posed, 2567,3-^ Note. [OE.sittan.] 
SiJ?e, SyJ?e, n. dat. time, 1052 ; 
in fele sipe, many times, 778, 
2189, 2843, sipe is gen. pi., but 
note fele sipes, 1277 ; MS. fele sipes, 
1737 ; fiue hundred sipes, 213 ; an 
hundred sypes, 2162. [OE. sip.] 

SiJ>e(n), adv. afterwards, 399, 

472, 1414, 1814, &c. ; Sipen, 

conj. after, 1988, &c. [OE. sidtian.] 

Sixe, adj. six, 1824. [OE. six.] 

Sixtene, adj. sixteen, 890. [OE. 




Sixti, adj. sixty, 1747, &c. [OE. 


Sket, adv. quickly, 1926, i960, 
2303, 2493, 2513, 2574, 2736, 
2839. [O N". skjdtt, earlier *skeot- .] 

Skirming, n. fencing, 2323. 
[To O.Fr. skirmer.] 

Slawe(n). See Slo. 

Slenge, v. to sling, 2435 ; Slen- 
get, pp. 1923. [ON. *slengja.~] 

Slep, n. sleep, 1282. [OE. 

Slepe(n), v. to sleep, 1283; 
Slep, imper. sg. 660, 661 ; Slep, 
pa. t. sg. 1280; Slepen, pa. t. pi. 
2128. [OE. slepan.] 

Sleues, n. pi. sleeves, 1957. 
[OE. slefie).] 

Sley, Slei(e), adj. skilful, ^1072, 
1084, 2 1 16. [ON. slceg-r.] 

Slike, adv. or adj. smooth or 
smoothly (?),H57. [OE.*j/wv? (?).] 

Slo, n. a sloe, 849, 2051. [OE. 

Slo(n), to slay, strike, smite, 
512, 1364, 1412, 1745, 2543, 2706; 
Slos, imper. pi. 2596 ; Slou, Slow, 
pa. t. sg. 501, 2633; Slowe(n), 
pa. t. pi. 2414, 2427, 2432 ; 
Slawe(n), pp. 1803, 1928, 2000, 
2681, 2747, &c. ; Slayn,j£/>. 1428; 
peferdes togidere slowe, the armies 
met in battle, 2683. [ON. sld, 
OE. slean, O.Nth.E. sIcl] 

Smerte, adj. pi. painful, 2055. 
[Cf. OE. smeart, but the vowel is 
influenced by OE. smeortan, v. or 
ME. smerte, n.] 

Smerte, adv. sharply, severely, 
215. [To prec] 

Smerte, v. to smart, cause acute 
pain, 2647. [OE. s??ieortan.] 

Smite, v. to smite, 1854; Smot, 
pa. t. sg. 1676, 1823, 2654. [OE. 

Smith, n. smith, 1876. [OE. 

So, n. a tub, pail, 933. [OE. 

So, adv. so, 17, &c. [OE. swd.] 
See Also. 

So, conj. as, 279, 349, &c. ; so 
... so, so .. . as, 1083, &c. ; so as, 
whereas, although, 337. [OE. 

Sobbing, n, sobbing, 234. [To 
OE. *sobbian.] 

Softe, adj. gentle, mild, 991. 
[OE. softe.] 

Softe, adv. luxuriously, 305; 
quietly, stealthily, 2618. [To 

Somdel, Sumdel, adv. some- 
what, rather, 240^450, 497, 1054, 
2306, 2950. [OE. sume dsele.] 

Sond, n. sand, shore, shoal (?), 
7o8, 735. [OE. sand.-] 

Sone, adv. straightway, 78, &c. ; 
sone . . . sone, conj. as soon as, 
1354. [OE. sona.] 

Sone, n. son, 246, 660, 839, 
2980. [OE. sunu."] 

Sor, n. grief, pain, 234, 1988. 
[OE. stir.] 

Sor, adj. painful, 181 7. [OE. 

Sore, Sare, adv. sorely, grie- 
vously, 152, 214, 401, 455, 503, 
&c. [OE. sare.] 

Sori, Sory, adj. sad, wretched, 
151, 477, 1248 ; vile, 2229. [OE. 

Sor we, n. sorrow, 57, 233, 473, 
1374, &c. [OE. sorg.] 

Sorwful (Sorful, 151; MS. 2541), 
adj. sad, sorrowful, in sor (w) fill 
and sori; cf. 1248. [OE. sorg- 

Soth, n. truth, 36, 2008, &c. ; 
for sope, truly, 274. In soth is, 
647; pat was soth, 2015; soth 
was, 2015, &c, it is n. or adj. 
[OE. sop.] 

Soplike, adv. truly, 276. [OE. 

Sotshipe (MS. Shotshipe), n. 
folly, 2099. [OE. sotscipe.] 

Soule,^i soul, 245, 1422 ; Soule, 



dat. 74; in mi soule red, 1975, it 
is dat. ox gen. sg., the sense amount- 
ing to ' what my conscience 
demands \ [OE. sdwol.] 

Soupe, Supe, v. to sup, 1765, 
1766. [OE. supan.] 

Soufite. See Seken. 

Sowe(n). See Se(n), v. 

Sowel, n. anything eaten with 
bread as a relish, 767, 1143, 2905. 
[OE. sufl.] 

Span-newe, adj. pi. brand new, 
968. [ON. spdn-ny-r.] 

Sparke, n. spark, 91. [OE. 
spear ca.] 

Spare, v, to spare, 1995, 2691 ; 
Sparede, pa. t. sg. in sparede he 
neyper tos ne heles, 898, i.e. he 
ran as fast as he could, 898 ; 
Spared, pp. 1240. [OE. spa- 

Sparkede, pa. t. sg. sparkled, 
2144. [OE. *spearcian,~] 

Speehe, n. speech, power of 
speech, 229 {see Leyn) ; MS. 
Speehe, 1065. [OE. spec.'] 

Spede, v. to prosper, succeed, 
93, 1634; Spedde,/tf. t. sg. 756. 
[OE. spedan.] 

Speke, n. speech, report, 946, 
*io65 (MS. Speehe). [OE. spec] 

Speke(n), v. to speak, talk, 
113, 125, 326, 369, 548, &c; 
Spak, pa. t. sg. 678, 2389, 2968 ; 
Speken, pa. t. pi. 1068, 1070 ; 
Spoken, pa. t. pi. 372 ; Speken, 
pp. 2369. [OE. specan.] 

Spell(e), n. story, tale, 338. 
[OE. spell.] 

Spelle, v. to relate, tell a story, 
x 5> 2530. [OE. spellian.] 

*Spende, pa. t. sg. spent, shed, 
1 8 1 9, but see Note. [OE. spendan.] 

Sperd(e), pp. locked in, im- 
prisoned, 414, 448. [OE. (ge)spear- 
rian, OLG. sperren^] 

Spere, n. spear, 380, 489, 624, 
2322, &c. [OE. spere.] 

Spille, v. to destroy, perish, 

2422 ; of limes spille, 86, see Lime. 
[OE. spillan.] 

Spired, pp. inquired, made in- 
quiries, 2620. [OE. spyrian,] 

Spore, Spure, n. spur, 1676, 
2569. [OE. spora, spura.] 

Sprauleden,/a. sprawled, 
475. [OE. spreawlian.] 

Sprede, v. to spread out (the 
hands in token of submission), 
95 ; Sprad, pp. 2920. [OE. 
spr sedan.] 

Springe(n), v. to spring ; 
Sprong, pa. t. sg. 91 ; on word 
wide sprong, 959, see Note ; 
Sprongen, pa. t. pi. 870 ; 
Sprungen, pp. in day was sprun- 
gen, dawn came, 1131. [OE. 

Sprote, n. twig, sprout, any 
growing plant, 1 1 42 . [OE. sprota.] 

Spuse(n), v. to marry, 1123, 
1 1 70; Spuse, 2 sg. subj. 2875; 
Spusede,/«. t. sg. 2887 ; Spused, 
Spuset, pp. 1 1 75, 1266, 2928. 
[O.Fr. (e)spouser.] 

Spusing(e), n. marriage, 1164, 
1 177, 2886, 2888. [To prec] 

Stac, n. a stack, 814. [ON. 

Staf, n. staff, 1890, 2517. [OE. 

Stake, n. a stake, 2830. [OE. 

Stalworpe, Stalworpi, adj. stal- 
wart, valiant, strong, 24, 904, 
2027, &c. ; MS. Stalwor])este, 
super I. 25. [OE. (WS.) stielwierde 
+ OE. -ig.] See Grund-stalwur]>e. 

Stan-ded, adj. stone-dead, dead 
as a stone, 1815. [OE. stan + 

Standen. See Stonden. 

Star, n. a kind of sedge used for 
kindling fires, 939. [ON. star-.] 

Stare(n), v> to stare ; Starinde, 
pres. ptc. 508 ; Stareden, pa. t. pi. 
1037 ( see Note). [OE. starian.] 

Stark, adj. strong, stout, 341, 



380 ; stark and strong, 608, 988 
Sec. [OR stearc.~] 

Stede, n. steed, 10, 26, 88, &c, 
[OE. steda.] 

Stsde, n. place, 142, 744, 18 
[OE. stede.] 

Stel, n. steel, 2503, 2759. [OE. 

Stem, n. a ray of light, 591 
[OE. steam."] 

Sternes, n. pi. stars, 1809 (see 
Ageyn). [ON. stjarna, earlier 

Stert, n. in on a litel stert, in a 
moment, 1873. [OE. *steort, cf. 

Stert, n. tail, 2823. [OE. steort.] 

Steuene, n. voice, 1275. [OE. 

Sti, n. way, road, *i20i, 2618. 
[OE. stig.] 

Sticke, Stikke, Stike, n. stick, 
914, 1142, 1238. [OE. sticca.] 
See Fir- sticke. 

Stille, adj. pi. quiet, shy, 955, 
2309. [OE. stilled] 

Stille, adv. quiet, quietly, not 
loudly, 69, 2997. [To prec] 

* Stinted (added in 1. 2670), pa. ceased. 

Stirt(e), pa. t. sg. leaped (up), 
rushed, 398, 566, 812, 873, 1049, 
&c. ; Stirte(n), pa. t. pi. 599, 
1964, 2609. [OE. *styrtan.] 

Stith, n. anvil, 1877. [ON. 

Stiward, n. steward, 666. [OE. 

Ston(e), n. stone, 569, 1023, 
1025, 1044, &c. ; precious stone, 
J 633. [OE. stdn.] 

Stonden, v. to stand, remain 
standing, be situated, 321, 689, 
2240, &c. ; Stod, pa. t. sg. 476, 
679, &c. ; in the tag- phrase per he 
stod, 181 8; it stod a stem, there 
issued a ray, 591 ; Engelond stod 
awe, 277 {see Note) ; Stode(n), 
pa. t. pi. 889, 1037 ; impers. in 

him stondes wel, it is well for him, 
2983. [OE. standan.] 

Stor, adj. great, proud, 2383. 
[ON. stdr-r.] 

Storie, n. story, 1641, 1734. 
[O.Fr. (e)storie.] 

Stormes, n. pi. 1378. [OE. 

Stra, n. straw ; in gaf nouht a 
stra, cared not a straw, 315, 466. 
[ON. stra.] 

Strangest. See Strong. 

Strangle(n),z>. to strangle, 2584; 
strangled, pp. 640. [O.Fr. 
(e)strangler.] *' 

Strem, n. stream, 2687. [OE. 

Strenes, 3 sg. pres. indie, begets, 
2983. [OE. streonan.] 

Strengpe, n. strength, 990. [OE. 

Strie, n. a hag, witch, 998. 
[O.Fr. (e)strie.] 

Strive, v. to strive, contend, 
2271. [O.Fr. (e)striver.] 

Strong, adj. strong, 80, &c. ; 
severe, oppressive, 114, 841, 1986 ; 
ful strong, shameful, too bad, 443, 
802 ; Strangest, super 1. 200, 1081. 
[OE. Strang.] 

Stronglike, adv. violently, 135. 
[OE. stranglice.] 

Strout, n. contention, 1039. 
[See next.] 

Stroute, v. contend, make a dis- 
turbance, 1779. [OE. strutian.] 

Stunde, Stonde, n. dat. while, 
period of time, 2614 ; umbe stonde, 
in former times, 2297. [OE. 

Sturgiun, n. sturgeon, 753, 1727 
(MS. Sturgun). [O.Fr. {e)stur- 

Sueren, Sweren, v. to swear, 
494, 647, &c. ; Snere, 2 sg. pres. 
subj. 388 ; Swor, pa. t. sg. 398, 
1 1 18, 2367; Swore, pa. t. pi. 
2307; Swor(e)n, pp. 204, 439, 
2378, &c, [OE. swerian.] 



Suete, Swete, adj. sweet, 1388, 
2927. [OE. swete.] 

Sueyn, Sweyn, Swain, n. pea- 
sant, 32, 343, 371, 1328, 2195, 
&c, generally used in opposition 
to kniht. [ON. svein-n.] 

Suilk, Swilk, adj. such, 644, 
1118, 1625, 2684, 2783; riht al 
swilk so, just as, 2 1 2 3. [OE. swilc. ] 
See Svich. 

Sum, adj. a, some, 1092 ; Sum- 
me,//. 1923, 1924. [OE. sum.~] 

Sumdel, See Somdel. 

Sunne, n. sun, 436, 2671, &c. 
[OE. sunne.~\ 

Sunne-bem, n. sunbeam, 592, 
2123. [OE. sunbeam, influenced 
by the simplex.] 

Supe. See Soupe. 

Super, n. supper, 1762. [O.Fr. 

Sure, adv. bitterly, dearly, 2005. 
[OE. sur, adj.] 

Suth, South, adv. south, 434, 
1255. [OE. sup.] See Bisoupe. 

Svich, adj. such, 60. [OE. 
swilc.'] See Suilk. 

Swannes, n. pi. swans, 1726. 
[OE. swan.] 

Swerd, n. sword, 1759, 1769, 
2625, 2631, 2659, &c. ; on swerd, 
2635, see Note. [OE. sweord.] 

Sweren. See Sueren. 

Sweyn. See Sueyn. 

Swike, n. traitor, 423, 551, 626, 
1158, 2401, 2451, 2834, 2990, &c. 
[OE. swica.] 

Swike, adj. deceitful, treacher- 
ous, 2468. [OE. swice.] 

Swikel, adj. treacherous, 1108. 
[OE. swicol.] 

Swilen, v. to wash (dishes), 919. 
[OE. swilian.] 

Swin, n. pi. swine, 701, 1227; 
S wines, gen. sg. 781. [OE. swm.~] 

Swinge, v. to beat, 214 ; Swun- 
gen t pp. 226. [OE. swingan.] 

Swink, n. labour, 770, 801, 
2456. [OE. (ge)swinc] 

Swinken v. to labour, toil, 
798; Swank, 788. [OE. 

Swire, n. neck, 311. [OE. 

Swipe, Swype, adv. very, ex- 
ceedingly, in, 217, 341, 2436, 
&c. ; quickly, 140, 584, 682, 690, 
2594, &c. [OE. swide.] 

Swot, n. sweat, 2662. [OE. 

Swungen. See Swinge. 

Syre. See Sire. 

Sype. See Si]?e. 

Sype, n. scythe, 2553, 2699. 
[OE. side, sigde.] 

Tabour, n. tabor, small drum, 
2329. [O.Fr. tabour :] 

Take(n), v. to take, catch, re- 
ceive, seize, 409, 532, &c. ; Tok, 
pa. t. sg. 114, 354, 467, 537, 
819; Toke, 2 sg. pa. t. 1216; 
Token, pa. t. pi. 11 94; Taken, 
pp. 260 ; take red, to adopt a plan, 
1833 ; take lond under fote, to set 
out on a journey, 1199. [ON. 

Tale, n. tale, 3, 5, 13, &c. ; bi 
tale, by number, 2026. [OE. tsel.] 

Talevas (MS. Talevaces), n. pi. 
bucklers, large shields, 2323. 
[O.Fr. talevas.] 

Tarst, adv. first, 2688 (j-^Note). 

[Tauhte (MS.), 2 2 14, see Bi- 

Tayl, n. tail, 2478, 2506. [OE. 

Tel, n. reproach; in withuten 
tel, 191, 2219. [OE. tel.] 

Telle, v. to tell, count, account, 
3, 2615, &c. ; cf. *Telle, MS. Til, 
1348; Told,//. 776, 1036,1172. 
[OE. tellan.] 

Ten, adj. ten, 871, 2414, 2429, 
&c. [OE. ten. The rimes prove 

Tendre, adj. tender, 217, 2743. 
[O.Fr. te?idre.] 



Tene, n. grief, affliction, 729. 
[OE. teona.] 

Ter, n. tear, 285. [OE. tear."] 

Tere, v. to paint with tar, 707. 
[To OE. teoru, n.] 

Teth, n. pi teeth, 2406. [OE. 
top, pi. tep.] 

Teyte, 0^'. active, eager, 1841, 
2331. [ON. teit-r.] 

pank, n. thanks, 160, 2560 {see 
Can); God pank, thanks to God, 
2005. [OE.^.] 

pankede, pa. t. sg. thanked, 
2189, 2843. [OE. pancian.] 

panne, pan, adv. then, 51, 59, 
1044, &c. ; conj. when, 226, 248, 
978, &c. [OE. panne.] 

j)anne, pan, conj. than, 983, 
&c. ; than if, 944, 1867. [OE. 

*par (MS. pat), pret. pres. ought, 
801, but see Note. [OE. Pear/.] 
See purte. 

pare. See pore. 

parne, v. to lose, be deprived of, 
1913,2492,2835. MS.parnedpe 
ded, 1687, is miswritten for poled pe 
ded, owing to confusion with parned 
pelif\<d. 2492. [ON. parfna.] 

pat, adj. and pron. that, 166, 
565, &c. [OE. past.] 

pat, pet, pron. rel. indecl. that, 
which, who, &c, 10, 101, 1675, 
&c. ; pat, dat. 727, 2029; often 
supplemented by the personal pro- 
noun pat . . . he, who, 2392, &c. ; 
pat . . . his, whose, 28 ; pat . . . 
hem, whom, 2966-7 ; pat it, which, 
2686, &c. ; pat, that which, 668, 
&c. [To prec] 

pat, conj. that, so that, in order 
that, 16, 18, 675, &c. ; because, 
161, &c. ; until, 576, 900. [OE. 

paue, v. to endure, suffer, per- 
mit, 296, 2696. [OE.pajian.] 

payn, peyn, pein, n. thane (in 
enumerations usually follows dreng 
and precedes kniht), 31, 1327, 

2184, 2194, 2260, 2466. [OE. 

pe, def. art. indecl. the, 5, &c. 
[OE. (Anglian)/* = J*.] 

pe (MS. phe, 1914), n. thigh, 
1903, 1950, 1984. [OE.peh.] 

pede, n. dat. country, 105, 2890. 
[OE. peod.] 

pef (MS. phes, 2289), thief, 
2434; penes, pi. 41, 1780. [OE. 

pei, pron. 3 pi. nom. they, 414, 
1020, 1 195, &c, beside common 
He; MS. pere, poss. adj. 1350, 
beside regular J$er(e), 52, &c. ; 
Hem, dat. and ace. 38, 76, &c. 
See the separate forms. [ON. 
pei-r, peirra, peim, beside OE. 
heo, heora, heom.] 

pei, pey, conj. though, yet, 807, 
992, 1165, *i682, 1966, 2501, &c. ; 
pei should probably be read for 
MS. prie, 730. [OE. J>eh.] See 

penk, v. to think, plan, 306, 
578 ; penke, 2 sg. pres. subj. 
2393 ; pouhte, powhte,/#. t. sg. 
443, 5o7> io 73, 1869, &c. ; pouht, 
pp. 312. [OE. pencan.] 

penne, adv. thence, 777, 1185. 
[Cf. OE. panan.] See pe]>en. 

per(e) (MS. often pe, 142, 476, 
86 3, 933). adv. there, 232, 234, 
&c. ; conj. where, 142, 158, 318, 
448, 803, &c. ; there where, 1 740 ; 
to where, 2381. [OE. per.] See 

per-, in perafter, after that, 135; 
on that account, 776, 819, &c. ; 
per-bi, by, 476 ; per-fore, for it, 
776 ; per-biforn, before that, 665 ; 
per-fram, from there, 55 ; per- 
fro, from it, 2253; perinne, 
therein, 322, 535, &c. ; perof, 
peroffe, thereof, 372, 466, 1068, 
&c. ; perporu, through it, by 
that means, 1098, 2827 ; pertil, 
thereto, 396, 1041, &c. ; perto, 
thereto, to it, 4, 1045, &c. ; per- 



ute, outside, 1778, 1809; per- 
with, therewith, 639, 1031, 1046. 
See perteken, per-yen. 

per(e). See pei. 

perl (for }e erl), the earl, 178. 

perne, n. serving-maid, 298. 
[ON. J>ema.~] 

perteken, adv. moreover, 2878. 
[OE. J>er to ecan.] 

per-yen, against that, 2271. 

pet, def. adj. in pet oper, the 
second, 879 ; and, with wrong 
division, MS. fe toper, 411 {see 
Note). [OE. past, neut.] 

pepen (MS. pe]>e, 2629), adv. 
thence, 2498. [ON . pedan.] 

peu, adj. and n. slave, serf, 2205 ; 
pewe, pi. 262. [OE. peow.~] 

peues. See pef. 

pewes, n. pi. manners, virtues, 
282. [OE. peaw.] 

pey. See pei. 

picke, adj. thick, stout, deep (in 
the chest), 1648. [OE. piece.] 

picke, adv. thickly, in great 
number, 1 1 72. [To prec] 

pider, adv. thither, 850, 1012, 
102 1, &c. [OE. pider.] 

pigge, v. to get by begging, 
I S7S' [OE. picgan, or ON. pig- 

ping(e), n. thing, 66, &c. ; 
Pinge, pi. 71; ping, pi. 2021; 
for no ping, on no account, 1936. 
[OE. fing.-] 

pinke(n), v. impers. it seems, 
2169; pouhte, pa. t. 197, 256, 
691,1286, &c. [OE.pyncan, pret. 

pis, pron. this, 260, 532, 841, 
&c; pis, pi. 1145. [OE. pis, 
neut. pis.] 

Pis (for pis is), 606. 

pisternesse, n. darkness, 2 191. 
[OE. plosternes{se)7] 

po, pron. those, 395 (see Note), 
1918, 2044, &c. [OE. pa, pi. of 

po, adv. then, 930 ; conj when, 
1047. [OE. pa.] 

por-, in portil, thereto, 1443 ; 
porwith, 100, therewith. See 

pore, adv. there, 742, 922, 1014, 
&c. [OE. far, pdra.] See per(e). 

por(h)ut, pur(h)ut, prep. 
throughout, 52, 1065. See poru. 

porn(e)bake, n. skate, ray, 759, 
832. [OE. pom + b&c] 

poru, porw, prep, through, by 
the agency of, 264, 367, 627, 848, 
2646 ; poru and poru, 774; poruth 
is clearly a spelling ioi poruh in 
2786; and possibly in puruth, 
52 ; poruth, 1065. [OE.purk.] 

poruh-like (MS. poruthlike), 
680 ; adv. searchingly. [OE. purh 
+ lice.] See poru. 

pouh, powh (MS. always pou, 
pow, po; cf. pei), conj. though, 
yet, 124, 299, 1020, 1669, &c. 
[ON. *pauk,pjh.] 

pouht, n. thought, concern, 122, 
1 1 90, 2053, &c. [OE. poht.] 

pouhte. See pinke(n). 

pousand, pusand, pousind, 
adj. thousand, 127, 2355, 2371, 
2681, &c. [OE. pus end, J>us and.] 

pral, n. slave, thrall, 527, 684, 
1097, 1158, 2*64, 2589; wretch, 
1408. [ON.prsel-l.] 

prawe, n. space of time, 276, 
1 2 15. [OE. prdg.] 

pre, adj. three, 385, &c. [OE. 

predde. See pridde. 

prette, pa. t. sg. threatened, 
1 163, 2404. [OE preatian.] 

pridde, predde, adj. third, 867, 
2^33. [OE.pridda.] 

prinne, adj. three, 716, 761, 
1977, 2091. [0~N.prinn-r.] 

priste(n), prist, v. to thrust, 
1152, 2019, 2625; prist,//. 638. 

priue, v. to thrive, 280, 514. 


1 62 


protes, throats, 471, 141 3. 
[OE. >•<>**.] 

pu, pw, pou (MS. po, 388, 
&c), pron. 2 i^. ;z*w/. thou. At- 
tached to verbs, as in wiltu, 691, 
&c. ; shallow, 1322, &c. ; MS. 
wille, 528 ; penkeste, 578. 7*# 
after a dental in jfotf tu y 2903. pin, 
£?#. 1 1 28; pin(e), pi, poss. adj. 
620, 1152, 2065 ; used absolutely > 
619, &c. ; pe, #<:<:. and dot, 529, 
53°. 53i, &c [OE.J>u,J>e,J>m.~] 
See Ye. 

pur(h)ut. .&* porn, por(h)ut. 

purte, pa. t. sg. need, might, 
10; cf. par, v. [OIL. purfan.~\ 

pus, adv. thus, 1952, &c. [OE. 

pusgate, adv. in this way, 785, 
2419, 2586. [Prec. + ON. gata!\ 
See Gate, Hwilkgat. 

Tid, fz.. time, hour, 2100. [OE. 

Tiding, n. news, information, 
1926. [ON. tidendi; cf. prec] 
See Ti]>andes. 

Tint (MS. Thit), pp. purposed, 
2990. [OE. tyhtan.~] 

Til, prep, to, for, 141, 761, 864, 
&c. [ON. ///; rareOE.^7.] See 
Intil, pertil, portil. 

Til, Til (pat), conj. till, until, 
174, 183, 192, 378, &c. [As prec] 

Tilled, /^. drawn; tilled in-til 
his hond, obtained control over, 
438. [OE. (for)tyllan.~] 

Time, n. time, 28, 45, &c [OE. 

Tinte, pa. t. sg. lost. 2023. [ON. 

Tirueden, pa. t. pi. rolled back, 
stripped (clothes off), 603. [OE. 
*tyrfan.~] See To-turuen. 

Tipandes, n. pi. news, 2279. 
[ON. tidendi.'] See Tiding. 
. To, n. toe, 898, 1743, 1847, 
2163, &c. [OE. ta.~\ 

To, Two, adj. two, 350, 2664. 
[OE. twa.~\ 

To, adv. too, 304, 689, 691 , &c 
[OE. to.~\ 
To, prep, to, for, 18, 72, 325, 
526, 783, &c. ; him to pe fet, at 
his feet, 616; to middel-niht, till 
midnight, 575 ; hire to gode pouhte, 
appeared to her as good, 197. 
[OE. *?.] 

To-, in composition with verbs 

has usually the force of Latin dis- ; 

see following words, where it is 

often intensified by prefixing A I. 

To-brised, pp. bruised sorely, 

1950. [OE. tobrysan.-] 

To-crusshe (MS. To-cruhsse), 
inf. crush to pieces, 1992. [ To -f 
O.Fr. cruissir.~] 

To-day, «^. to-day, 42 6. [OE. 

To-deyle, pi. pres. indie, take 
part in, 2099. [7£+ ON. deila.~\ 
See Deyled. 
To-drawen,^. drawn asunder, 
2001. \_To + OE. dragan.] 
To-frusshe, v. to break in 
pieces, 1993. [To-h O.Yr. fruis- 

To-gidere, Togydere, adv. 
together, 1128,1181, 2683, 2891. 
[OE. togsedere.~] 
To-hewen, pp. hewn to pieces, 
2001. [OE. to + heawan.'] 
To-morwe(n), adv. to-mor- 
row, 530, 1 127, 201 1. [OE. 

To-nieht, Toniht, adv. to- 
night, 533; last night, 1955, 
2003. [OE. to-niht.~\ 
To-riuen, pp. torn to pieces, 
1953; To-rof, pa. t. sg. 1792. 
[To + O^.rifa.'] 

To-shiuere, v. to shiver in 
pieces, 1993 ; Toshiuered, pp. 
2667. [7^+ME. shiuerenJ] 
To-tere, v. to tear in pieces, 
1839; To-torn,//. 1948, 2021. 
[OE. toteran.~\ 

To-turuen, v.. to strip (eels of 
their skins), 918. [Since u for 



OE. y is not found elsewhere in 
Havelok, the form if correct 
points to OE. *turfian.~\ See 
To-tused, pp. mauled, torn, 
1948. [OE. *to-tusian.~] 
To-yede, pa. t. sg. went to, 
765. [OE. pret. to-geeode.~\ 

Totede, pa. t. sg. peeped, 2106. 
[OE. totian.~] 

[Toper (MS.), 411. See pet] 

Toun, Tun, Town, n. town, 
397, 764, 1001, 1444, 1750, 2277, 
291 1, &c. [OE. tun.] 

Tour, n. tower, 448, 2073. 
[O.Fr. tour.~] 

Toward, prep, towards, 2138. 
[OE. to -wear d.] 

Trayso(u)n, Tresoun, n. trea- 
son, 312, 444, 1090, 2989. [O.Fr. 
traison, -un.] 

Trayt(o)ur, Tr ay tur, Trait our, 
n. traitor, 319,692, 2757. [O.Fr. 

Tre, n. a bar of wood, 1022, 
1821, 1843, 1882, &c. [OE.treo.] 
See Dore-tre ; Galwe-tre. 

Trechery, n. treachery, 443, 
1089. [O.Fr. trecheric.~\ 

Trewe, adj. true, trusty, 179, 
1756 ; Trewest, superl. 374. [OE. 

Tristen, v. to trust, 253. [Cf. 
ON. treysta.] 

Tro, v. to trust, believe in, 2862 ; 
*Trod (MS. Croud),//. 2338, see 
Note. [O. East Norse trda.] See 

Trome, n. a company, troop, 8. 
[OE. truma?\ 

Trone, n. throne, 1316. [O.Fr. 

Trowe, v. to believe, trust, 1656 ; 
Trowede, pa. t. sg. 382. [OE. 
treawian, truwian.] See Tro. 

Trusse, v. to pack up, 2017. 
[O.Fr. trousser.~\ 

Tuenti, adj. twenty, 259. [OE. 

Tumberel, n. a porpoise, 757. 
[O.Fr. *tomberel.] 

Tun. See Toun. 

Tunge, n. tongue, 369. [OE. 

Turbut, n. turbot, 754. [O.Fr. 

Turnen, v. to turn, recover, 154. 
[O.Fr. toumer.~\ 

Turves, n. pL turf, peat, 939. 
[OE. turf.'] 

Twelue (MS. Twelf, 787; Twel 
rather for Twelf, 1054, 2455), adj. 
twelve. [OE. twelf ^ 

Ueneysun, n. venison, 1726. 
[O.Fr. veneisun.~] 

Vmbe stonde, adv. once upon a 
time, formerly, 2297. [ON. umb 
+ OE. stund.~\ See Stunde. 

Umbistode, pa. t. pi. stood 
around, beset, 1875. [ON. umb + 
bestandan.] See Bistode. 

Vm-bi-yeden (MS. Unbi-; cf. 
MS. Chaunpioun), pa. t. pi, sur- 
rounded, 1842. [ON. umb + 0E. 

Unblipe, adj. unhappy, sad, 141. 
[OE. unblzde.] 

Unbounden, pa. t. pi. unbound, 
601. [OE. onbindan.~\ 

Unelopede, pa. t. sg. undressed, 
659. [OE. on-, un- + clddian.] 

Under, prep, under; uitder mone , 
373 ; vnder God, 423, i.e. on earth ; 
under hond, under (his) sway, 
2295. [OE. under.] 

Underfong, pa. t. sg. perceived, 
115 {see Note). [OE. underfon, 
pp. -faiigen.] 

TJnderstonde, v. to receive, 
1159, 28l 4; Under-stod, pa. t. 
sg. 1760. [OE. understandan.] 

Undertok, pa. t. sg. took, 664 ; 
Under-toke, 3 sg. pa. t. subj. 
would take in charge, 377. [OE. 
under +01$. taka.~\ 

Undo, v. unfasten, open, cut 
loose, 1772, 2739. [OE. ondon.] 

M 2 



Unker, pron. gen. dual, in 
e(y)per linker, each of you two, 
1882 ; ^Note. 

Unkeueleden, pa. t. pi. un- 
gagged, 601. [«»- + ON. kefla.~] 
See Keuel. 

Unkyndelike, adv. unsuitably, 
beneath (her) rank, 1250. [OE. 
un (ge)cyndelue.~\ 

Unornelike, adv. roughly, 
shamefully, 1941. [OE. unomlic, 

Unride, adj. rough, clumsy, huge, 
very numerous, 964, 1795, 1981, 
2673, 2947; Unrideste, superl. 
1985. [OE. tmgeryde.] 

Unriht, n. wrong, injustice, 1369. 
[OE. unriht.~\ 

Until, prep, unto, to, 2913, 
2930. [ON. *Mi(?)+ON. til.'] 

Un-to, prep, to, 1934, T944, 2086, 
2399, 2474. [Cf. prec. and OLG. 
unto.] See Intil. 

Unwraste, adj. wretched, filthy, 
547, 2821. [OE. unwrsest.] 

Uoyz, n. voice, 1 2 64. [O. Fr. vote.] 

Up, adv. up, 597, &c. [OE. 
up, upp.] 

Up-drow, pa. t. sg. drew up, 932. 
[OE- up-{-dragan.] See Drawen. 

Up-on, prep, upon, against, 47, 
2689, &c. ; upon his gamen, in 
sport, 468. [OE. up + on.] 

Vt,prep. out, 89, 155, 346, 1178, 
&c. [OE. ut.] 

Vt-drawen, v. to draw out ; Vt- 
drow, pa. t. sg, 1794, 2632 ; Ut- 
drawe(n), pp. 1802, 2631. [OE. 
ut -f dragan.] See Drawen . 

Uten, adv. out, exhausted, 842 (?). 
Znpitza suggests eten, but the MS. 
is possibly correct. [OE. utan.] 

Uten-laddes, n. pi. men from 
abroad, foreigners, 2153, 2580. 
See Uten and Ladde. 

"Vtlawes, n. pi. outlaws, 41. 
[ON. Magi.] 

Utrage, n. outrage, outrageous 
conduct, 2837. [O.Fr. outrage.] 

Wa, See Wo. 

Wade, v. to pass, go, 2645. [OE. 

Wagge, v. to brandish, wield, 
89. [Cf. OE. wagian.] 

Waiten, Wayte(n), v. watch, 
watch for an opportunity, 512, 
1754, 2070. [O.Nth.Fr. waiter.] 

"Waken, v. to keep watch over, 
be awake, 630 ; Waked, pp. 2999. 
[OE. wacian.] 

Wakne, v. intrans. to wake up, 
2164. [OE. W8ecn(i)an.] 

Wantede, pa. t. sg. was lacking, 
712, 1243. [ON.,'Z>a:?zta.] 

War, adj. aware, conscious, 788, 
2139. [OE. wser.] 

Warant, n. surety, 2067. 
[O.Nth.Fr. warant.] 

Ware, n. wares, merchandise, 
52, 765. [OE. waru.] 

Ware. See Wore. 

Warie, v. to curse ; 3 sg. pres. 
suoj.4.33; WsiTied, pp. 434. [OE. 

Warne, v. to warn, 2834. [OE. 

Warp, pa. t. sg. threw, cast, 
T061. [OE. weorpan.] 

Was, pa. t. sg. was, 6, 7,8, &c. ; 
Weren, pa. t. pi. 283, &c. ; 
Wer(e),^. t. sg. subj. 133, 1097, 
&c. ; Weren, pa. t. pi. subj. 2413, 
&c. [OE. wees, weron.] See Wore. 

Washen, v. to wash, 1233. [OE. 

Wastel, n. cake or loaf made of 
fine flour, 779, 878. [O.Nth.Fr. 

Water, n. water, 912,932, &c. 
[OE. waster.] 

Wawe, Wowe, n. wall, 2078 ; 
in the tag bi pe wawe, 474, 1963, 
2470. [OE. wag.] 

Waxen, v. to grow ; Wex, pa. 
t sg. 281 ; "Waxen, pp. 302, 791. 
[OE. wsexan.] 

Wayke, adj. pi. weak, 1012. 
[ON. veik-r.] 


I6 5 

Wayte(n). See Waiten. 

"We, pron. 2 pi. nom. we, 457, 
&c. ; Us, ace. and dat. 16, 455, 
&c. ; Ure, poss. adj. 697, &c. 
[OE. we, us, ure.~\ 

Wede, v. gallop furiously (of a 
horse), .2837, 2641. [OE. wedan.] 
See Wod. 

"Wede, n. clothing, garments, 94, 
323, 861, 2825. [OE. wed(e).] 

Wedde, v. to wed, marry, 11 13 ; 
Weddet, "Wedded, pp. 1127, 
2770. [OE. weddian.~\ 

Wei, n. road, way, 772, &c. ; 
Weie, dat. 952. [OE. weg.~\ 

Weilawei, inter j. alas ! 462, 
570. [OE. wei la wei.] 

Wei (MS. Wol, 185), adv. full, 
quite, very ; often likeyWused as a 
weak intensive, 29, 115, 185,1747; 
Wei o bon{e), see note to 2355 ; 
was him ivel, he was well off, 274 ; 
wel with me, in my favour, 2878. 
[OE. wel.] 

Wele (MS. Wel), n. weal, 
happiness; in for wele ne wo, for 
weal or woe, on any account, 2777. 
[OE. wela.~\ 

Welde, v. to wield (a weapon), 
to rule, govern (a kingdom), pos- 
sess, 129, 175, 1359, x 43^ 2034. 
[OE. geweldan, wk.] 

Welkome, pp. welcome, 1213, 
1 2 14. [Cf. ON. vel-kominn.] 

Welle, n. spring, well, 1851. 
[OE. welled), welle.~\ 

Wende, v. to go, turn, 1344, 
1346, 1440, 1705, 2629; Wente, 
pa. t. sg. 1 919 ; Wend, pp. 2138 ; 
Went, pp. 2450, see Note. [OE. 

Wene, v. to think, expect, 598, 
655, 840, 1260, 1787 ; Wende, 
pa. t. sg. 524, 1091, 1803, &c. ; 
Wende(n), /^. t. pi. 374, 1197, 
2547. [OE. wenan.] 

Wepen, pa. t. pi. wept, 152, 
401. [OE. wepan.] 

Wepne, n, sg. & pi. weapon (s), 

89, 93, 490, 1436, &c. [OE. 

Wer(en). See Was. 

Werd, n. world, 1290 {see Note) ; 
2241, 2335, 2792, 2968 ; worde, 
in the world, 1 349. [OE. weorold.] 

Were, v. to defend, 2152, 2298. 
[OE. werian.] 

Werewed, pp. 1 91 5 , is apparent- 
ly the same as Wirwed, pp. 
mauled, strangled, 19 21. On the 
vowel see Morsbach, ME. Gr. 
§ 129 n. 2. [OE. wyrgan.~] 

Werk, n. labour, deed, 34, 866. 
[OE. were] 

Werne, v. to refuse, deny, 1345 ; 
Werne, 3 sg. pres. subj. 926. 
[OE. wernan.~] 

Werse, adj. compar. worse, 1 100, 
1 1 34; the vowel is perhaps due 
to ON. verri compar., verst-r 
superl. [Cf. OE. wyrsa.] 

Wesseyl, n. wassail, toast, lit. 
be hale ! 1 246. [ON. *ves heill.~] 

~WesseyleTn,pl.pres. indie, drink 
healths, 2098 ; Wosseyled, pp. 
1737. [Toprec] 

Wex. See Waxen. 

Wicke, Wikke, Wike, adj. 
wicked, wretched (of clothes), 66, 
269, 3i9> 4 2 5, 665, 688, 965, 
2458, 2825; wicke red, an unfor- 
tunate plan, 1406. 

Wide, adj. pi. wide, 1845, 1957. 
[OE. wid.~\ 

Wide, adv. far, wide, 959, 1796. 
[OE. wide.] 

Wif, n. woman, wife, 348, 1713, 
2860; Wiues,//. 2, 2855. [OE. 

Wiht, n. whit, in no wiht, not 
at all, 97, 1763, 2500. [OE. 

Wiht, adj. courageous, active, 
344, 1008, 1064, 1651, 1692, &c. ; 
Wihtest(e), superl. 9, ^25. [ON. 
vig-t, adj. neut.] 

Wike, Wikke. See Wicke. 

Wil, adj. at a loss, bewildered, 

1 66 


ignorant, 863. [ON. vill-r.] See 

Wilde, adj. wild, 268. [OE. 

"Wile, Wille, v. will, wish, de- 
sire, be willing, 352, 388, 485, &c. ; 
Wiltu (MS. Wilte, 528, 1135), 
wilt thou, 681, 905; Wole, 1 sg. 
pres. 494, 1150; Wilen,//. 732, 
920, 1345, 2817, &c. ; Wolde 
(MS. Wode, 951, 2310), pa. t. sg. 
367, &c. ; Wolden,^?. t. pi. 456, 
514, 1057, &c. ; on *Wilde, 354, 
which perhaps represents ON. vilda 
pa. t., see Note. [OE. willan.~] 

"Wille, n. will, 273; wille don, 
to work (one's) will, 528, 953, 
2423. [OE. willa.~\ 

Wimman, Wymman, Wuman 
(MS. Wman, 174, 281), n. woman, 
1139, 1156, 1168, 1720, 2713, &c. 
[OE. wifman?^ 

Win, Wyn, n. wine, 1729, 2341. 
[OE. win.'] 

Wind, n. wind, 723, 1360. [OE. 

Winde,z>. to wind, 221 ; Woun- 
den (MS. Wnden), pp. 546. [OE. 

Winne, n. dat. joy, 660, 2965. 
[OE. wynn.~\ 

"Winne, v. to win, gain, 852, 
1322. [OE. winnan.] 

"Winter, n. pi. winters, years, 
259, 417, &c. [OE. winter.] 

"Wirehen, v. to work, cause, 
510; Wrouht, Wrowht, pp. 
1352, 2453, 2810. [OE. wyrcan.] 

Wis, adj. wise, proficient, 180, 
282, 288, 1421, 1635, &c. [OE. 

Wise, n. manner, way, 204, 1713. 
[OE. wise.] 

Wislike, adv. assuredly, 274. 
[OE. {ge) wis slice.] 

Wisse, v. to direct, guide, advise, 
104, 361. [OE. wissian.] 

Wissing, n. advice, guidance, 
2902. [OE. wissung.] 

Wiste(n). See Wite. 

Wit (?) (MS. Witl), pron. dual 
nom. we two, 1336, see Note, and 
cf. Unker. [OE. wit.] 

Wite, v. to guard, decree, 405, 
1 3 16. [OE. witian.] 

Wite(n), v. to know, 367, 517, 
626, 2201, 2708, 2786, 2808, &c. ; 
Wite, 3 sg. pres. subj. if he know, 
694; Wot, pret. pres. sg. 119, 
2i3» 6 53 J I 345 ? 2 5 2 7 3 2 8°3; Wost, 
2 sg. pret. pres. 527, 582, 1384, 
2715, &c, ; Witen, pret. pres. pi. 
2208 ; Wiste, pa. t. sg. 115, 223, 
358, 541, 1280, i'&c ; Wisten, 
pa. t. pi. 1 184, 1 187, 1200, &c. 
[OE. wat, wiste, inf. witan.] 

Witer-like, adv. certainly, 671. 
[ON. vitr+QE. lice.] 

With (MS. Wit commonly), 
prep, together with, 52, 2517, &c. ; 
Krist zvas him with, 62 ; net with 
horn, horned cattle, 7°°> & c * 5 
with trechery, treacherously, 1089, 
&c. By means of, 505, 1821, &c. ; 
with pe prestes shritie, shriven by 
the priests, 2489 ; wrastling with 
laddes, 2324. [OE. wid.] 

With-al, adv. likewise, 754. 
[OE. wid + all.] 

Wipe, prep, with, 105 1 {see 
Note). Extended adverbial form 
of preposition when postponed ; cf. 
Offe, Onne. [To OE. wid.] 

Withdrawen, v. to withdraw, 
draw back ; With-drou (MS. 
Wit-drow, 502), 498, 502. [OE. 
wid + dragan.] 

With-held, pa. t. sg. retained, 
820, 2356, 2362. [OE. wid + 

With-inne, prep, within, 2536. 
[OE. widinnan.] 

With-sitten, v. to oppose, 1683. 
[OE. wid + sittan.] Cf. At-sitte. 

With-pan, conj. provided that, 
on condition that, 532. [OE. wid 

With-pat, conj. on condition 



that, so that, 19, 1220. [OE. 

Witlmten (MS. Wituten com- 
monly), prep, except, 425 ; with- 
out, 2860, esp. in such phrases as 
withuten faile, 1 79 ; withuten 
ende, 247 ; * withuten *were, with- 
out doubt, 1334, which are model- 
led on Fr. sanz faile, Sec. [OE. 

"Wo, Wa, n. woe, misery, wail- 
ing, 124, 461, 465, 510, Sec, 
wirchen wo, 510 ; ful, wo wrouht, 
2453 ; wurpe him wo, may woe 
betide him, 2221. [OE. wa.'] 

"Wo, adj. wretched ; in do ful 
wo = make very wretched, 611, 
2589. [To prec] 

Wod, adj. mad, 508, 1777, 1848, 
&c. ; Wode,//. 1896; to *fyhten 
wode, madly eager to fight, 2361. 
[OE. wod.~\ See Wede. 

"Wode, n. wood, fuel ; Wodes, 
pi. woods, 268, 397, 1444. [OE, 

"Wok, pa. t. sg. awoke, 2093. 
[OE. wacan.~\ See Waken. 

"Wold, n. meaning, significance, 
1932, see Note. [OE. \ge)wald.\ 

Wolde. See Wile. 

Wole. See Wile. 

"Wolle, n. wool, 700. [OE. wull.~] 

Wombes, n. pi. bellies, 191 1. 
[OE. wamb.~\ 

"Won, n. quantity, number, 
opinion ; in the tags ful god won, 
in great number or quantity, 1024, 
1837, I 9°7» 2325, 2617, 2729; 
perhaps ' with great force ', 1791 ; 
bi mine wone, in my opinion, 
1711,1972. [O'N.vdn.] 

Wone, v. to dwell, 105, 247, 
406, 1325, &c. [OE. wunian.] 

Wone, adj. accustomed, wont, 
2151,2297. \0^.wuna,n.and2i6.)j] 

Wonges, n. pi. fields, 397, 1444. 
[OE. wangJ] 

"Word, n. word, report, fame, 
959, 2010. [OE. word.] 

Word(e). See Werd. 

"Wore, pa. t. sg. were, 504, &c. •; 
"Wore, 2 sg. pa. t. subj. 684, &c. ; 
Wore(n), "Ware, pa. t. pi. 237, 
400, 448, &c. See Was. [ON. 
varum, pa. t. pi.] 

"Worth, adj. worth, 966, 1633. 
[OE. weord.] 

"Worth, n. worth, value, 1332. 
[OE. weord.] 

Worf>e, Wur J>e, 3 sg. pres. subj. 
be, 434, 1102, 2873; Wurpe, 
impers. 3 sg. subj. in wu7pe him 
wo, 2221. [OE. weorpan.] 

Wosseyled. See Wesseylen. 

"Wot. See Wite(n). 

"Wounde. See Wunde. 

"Woundede, pa. t. sg. wounded, 
2742; Woundeden, pa. t. pi. 
2429. [OE. wundian^] 

"Wounden. See Winde. 

"Wo we. See Wawe. 

Wrastling, n. wrestling, 2324. 
[OE. wrsestlung.] 

Wrathe, n. wrath, anger, 2719, 
2977. [OE. wraffifSu.] See Wroth. 

Wreieres, n. pi. betrayers, trai- 
tors, 39. [OE. wregere.] 

"Wreke(n), v. to avenge, 327; 
"Wreke, imper. sg. 544, 1363; 
Wreke(n), pp. avenged, 1884, 
1 901, 2368, 2849, 2992. [OE. 

Wringen, v. to wring, 1233; 
"Wrungen, pa. t. pi. 152. [OE. 

"Wringing, n. wringing, 235. 
[To prec] 

Writ, n. writing, inscription, 
2486 ; "Writes, pi. letters, 136, 
2275. [OE. writ.] 

Writen,/^. written, 2481. [OE. 

Wrong, n. wrong, 72, 76, 2806. 
[ON. *wrang-r, Icel. rang-r.] 

Wros, n. pi. corners, 68. [ON. 

Wroth, adj. angry, 1 1 1 7; Wrope, 
//. 2973. [OE.wrad.] See Wrathe. 



Wrouht, Wrowht. See Wir- 

Wulf (MS. Wlf), n. wolf, 573. 
[OE. wulf.~\ 

Wuluine (MS. Wluine), n. she- 
wolf, 573. [Cf. OE. wylfen, but 
the suffix -ine is difficult.] 

Wuman. See Wimman. 

Wunde, "Wounde, n. wound, 
1845, 1898, 1978, 1980, 1986, 
2673. [OE. wund.~] 

Wurpe. See Worpe. 

Wydues, n. pi. widows, 33 ; 
Widuen,//. 79. [OE. widwe.~\ 

Y. See Ich. 

Ya, adv. yea, yes, 1888, 2009, 
2607. [OE. gedj] See Ye. 

Yaf. See Yeue. 

Yare, adj. ready, eager, 1391, 
2574, 2788, 2954. [OE. gearu.] 

Yaren, v. to make ready, pre- 
pare, 1350. [OE. gearwian."] 

[Yat (MS.), pp. granted, 1674, see 
Note. [ON.jdta,jdtta.)~\ 

Ye, adv. yea, yes, 2606. [OE. 
gea.~] See Ya. 

"Ye,pron. 2 pi. nom. you, n, 12, 
&c. ; *You[r] (?), gen. of you, 
1799, see Note; Yure, Youre, 
poss. adj. 171, 2801, Sec; Youres 
(used absolutely), 2798, 2801 ; 
You, ace. and dat. 453, 1441, &c. 
The plural forms are often used to 
a superior, 484, 485, &c, but cf. 
1401, 1402, and MS. pe, 1628. 
[OE. ge, eow, eower.~\ 

Yede (pa. t. sg. of gon, q.v.), 
walked, went, availed, 6, 44, 774, 
821, &c; Yede(n),/#. I. pi. 101, 
889, 952. [OE. ge-eode.~] 

Yeft, n. giving, bestowal, 2336. 
[Cf. OE. gift.'] See Yeue. 

Yelde, v. give, yield, render up 
to, requite, 803, 2402, 2712, 2717. 
[OE. geldan.~] 

! Yeme, v. to take care of, govern, 
rule, 131, 172, 182, 209, 324, &c. ; 
"Yem.ede,pa. t. sg. (intrans.) 975 ; 
Yemede,/tf. 2276 ; Yemed, 
PP' 3°5« [OE. geman.~\ 

Yer, n. year, 1333. [OE. ger.~\ 

Yerd, n. yard, enclosure, 702. 
[OE. geard.~\ 

Yerne, adv. eagerly, earnestly, 
readily, 153, 211, 880, 925, 1346, 
1865, &c. [OE. georne.'] 

Yerne, 3 sg. pres. subj. desire, 
299. [OE. geornian.~\ 

Yet(e), adv. yet, 1319, 2040; 
used to strengthen neuere, etiere, 
495, 973, 99 6 , io 43> 1288, 2334. 
IOE. geta.~} 

Yeue (*Yiue is frequently 
proved by rimes), v. to give, grant, 
give in exchange, 22, 298, 459, 
911 ; Yif, 2 sg. imper. 674 ; Yaf, 
pa. t. sg. 256,' 419, 1174, &c. ; 
yafnouht a stra, &c, cared not a 
straw, 315, 419 ; Youen, pp. 224, 
304; Youenet = Youen it, 1643. 
[OE. gefan.~\ See Giue, v. 

Y-here, v. to hear, 11. [OE. 
geheran.~\ See Here(n). 

Yif, conj. if, 377. [OE. gif.] 

Y-lere, v. to learn, 12. [OE. 
geleeran.~\ See Lere(n), v. 

Ynow, Ynou. See Inow. 

Youenet. See Yeue. 

You, Your, Youres. See Ye. 

Youpe, n. dat. youth, 2988. 
[OE. geogotl.-} 

lE&ypron. See Es, pron. 

Y-se, v. to see, 334. [OE. 
geseon.~\ See Se(n). 

Yunder, adv. yonder, 922, is 
probably a spelling for yonder. 
[OE. *geonder, cf. Gothic jaindre.~] 

Yung(e), adj. young, 30, 112, 
368, 956, &c. [OE. g"ung.~\ 

Yure. See Ye. 


[In this Index, the references under the words in capital letters are in 
general to the pages of the book ; otherwise, the references are to the 
lines of the poem.] 

Adam, 2287. 

Athelwold {spelt A}>elwald, 
1. 1077), is king of England, and 
governs wisely, pp. 2, 3 ; feels he 
is dying, p. 5 ; bequeaths his 
daughter to the care of Godrich, 
pp. 7, 8 ; dies, p. 9. (Mentioned 
again in 11. 2709, 2803.) 

Austin, seint, St. Augustine, 

Bernard Brun (i.e. Bernard 
Brown; so called in 11. 1751, 
1945), provides a supper for Have- 
lok, p. 58 ; his house attacked by 
thieves, p. 59 ; fights against them, 
p. 62 ; tells Ubbe how well Have- 
lok fought, p. 65. 

Bertram {named in 1. 2898), is 
cook to the Earl of Cornwall, and 
employs Havelok, pp. 33, 34 ; is 
made Earl of Cornwall, and marries 
Levive, Grim's daughter, p. 99. 

Birkabeyn {spelt Bircabein, 1. 
494; gen. Birkabeynes, 2150, 2209, 
2296), is king of Denmark, p. 13; 
commends his three children to 
Godard, p. 15; dies, p. 15; his 
son Havel ok's resemblance to him, 
p. 72. See Introd., p. xxvi. 

Cestre (Chester), 2607, 2859, 

Cornwayle (Cornwall), 178, 
2532, 2908; MS. Cornwalie, 884. 

Crist, 16, &c. ; — Krist^ 17, 22 ; 

gen. Kristes, 2797. 

Dauy, seint, St. David, 2867. 

Denemark (Denmark), 340, 38 t, 
386, &c. 

Denshe, adj. Danish, 1403 ; pi. 
2575, 2693, 2938, 2945. Danshe, 

Douere (Dover), 139, 265. 
Doure, 320. 

Elfled (MS. Helfled), Havelok's 
sister, 411. 

Engelond (England), 59, 202, 
250, &c. ; — Engellond, 1093 ; — 
Engelonde, 208 ; — Englond, 1270 ; 
— Engeland, 108, 610 ; — MS. 
Hengelond, 999 ; gen. Engelondes, 


Englishe, pi. adj. {followed by 
men), 2766, 2795; — Englis {used 
absolutely), 254 ; — MS. Henglishe, 


Eue, Eve, 2287; gen. Eues, 

Griffin Galle, 2029 ; but MS. 
Giffin is probably correct. 

Godard {gen. Godardes, 1. 2415), 
is made regent of Denmark, pp. 
15, 16 ; shuts up Birkabeyn's 
children in a castle, p. 16; kills 
Swanborow and Elfled, p. 18; 
spares Havelok, p. 19 ; but after- 



wards hires Grim to drown Have- 
lok, p. 20; is attacked by Havel ok, 
p. 80 ; is taken prisoner, p. 82 ; 
condemned, flayed, drawn and 
hanged, pp. 83, 84. 

Godrich {spelt Godrigh, 1. 178), 
is Earl of Cornwall, p. 7 ; is made 
regent of England, pp. 8, 9, 10 ; 
shuts Goldborough up in Dover 
Castle, p. 1 2 ; makes Goldborough 
marry Havelok, p. 41 ; raises an 
army against Havelok, p. 86 ; ex- 
cites his men, p. 87 ; marches to 
Grimsby, p. 88 ; fights withUbbe, 
p. 89 ; fights with Havelok, p. 
92 ; is taken prisoner, p. 93 ; 
taken to Lincoln, and burnt alive, 
pp. 95, 96. 

Goldeboru (or Goldeborw, 
1. 2985), is daughter of King 
Athelwold, p. 5 ; is committed to 
the care of Godrich, p. 8 ; shut up 
in Dover castle, p. 12 ; is sent for 
to Lincoln, p. 40 ; is married to 
Havelok, p. 43 ; hears an angel's 
voice, p. 46 ; encourages Havelok 
to go to Denmark, p. 48 ; rejoices 
at Godrich's death, p. 96 ; is queen 
of England, p. 101. 

Grim, a fisher, is hired by 
Godard to drown Havelok, p. 20 ; 
discovers Havelok to be the right 
heir to the crown, p. 2 2 ; takes 
Havelok over to England, p. 26 ; 
founds Grimsby, p. 27 ; sends 
Havelok to Lincoln, p. 31; dies, 
p. 44. 

Grimesbi, 745, 2540, 2579, 
2617, 2619; — Grimesby, 1202, 

Gunnild (daughter of Grim, 
marries Earl Reyner of Chester), 
2866, 2896. 

Gunter (an English earl), 2606. 

Hauelok, son of King Birka- 
beyn of Denmark, p. 14 ; spared 
by Godard, p. 19 ; but given over 
by him to Grim to be drowned, 

p. 20 ; spared and fed by Grim, 
P* 2 3»* goes to England, p. 26; 
sells fish, p. 30 ; works as a porter, 
p. 33 ; puts the stone, p. 38 ; 
marries Goldborough, p. 43 ; 
returns to Grimsby, p. 44; his 
dream, p. 47 ; returns to Denmark, 
p. 52 ; trades there, p. 53 ; is 
noticed by Ubbe, p. 55 ; defends 
Bernard's house against thieves, 
pp. 59-63; is known to be heir 
of Denmark by a miraculous light, 
p. 69 ; is dubbed knight by Ubbe, 
p. 77 ; is king of Denmark, p. 78 ; 
defeats Godard, ( p. 81; invades 
England, p. 85 ; defeats Godrich, 
p. 93 ; rewards Bertram and others, 
p. 98 ; lives to be a hundred years 
old, p. 99 ; is crowned king of 
England at London, p. 100; is 
king for sixty years, p. 100. [The 
story is called ' J)e gest of Hauelok 
and of Goldeborw ', 1. 2985.] 

Humber (the river), 733. 

Huwe Uauen (one of Grim's 
sons), 1398, 1868, 2349, 2 ^3^ 
2677; MS - Hwe > l8 7 8 - 

Iohan, seint ; the patron saint 
to whom Havelok commits his 
Danes, 2957 ; bi seint Iohan I 
1112,1721,2563. Spelt Ion, 177. 

Iudas, 319, 425, 482, 1133. 

Kaym, gen. Cain's, 2045. 

Lazarun (= Lazarum, ace. of 
Lazarus),, 331. Cf. 'Lord' — seyd 
Gij— 'that rered Lazeroun? &c. 
Guy of Warwick, ed. Zupitza, 
p. 592. 

Leue (Grim's wife), 558, 576, 
595, 618, 642. 

Leuiue (Grim's daughter, mar- 
ried to Bertram), 2914. 

Lincolne, 773, 847, 862, 980, 
1105, 2558, 2572, 2824. 

Lindeseye (N. part of Lincoln- 
shire), 734. 

Lundone (London), 2943. 



Marz (March), 2559. 

Reyner (earl of Chester), 2607. 

Roberd ($>e Rede) (Grim's 
eldest son), 1397, 1686, 1888, 
&c; — Robert, 2405, 24H, &c. ; 
gen. Roberdes, 1691. 

Rokesborw (Roxburgh), 265 ; 
— Rokesburw, 139. 

Sathanas (Satan), 1100, 1134, 

Swanborow (Havelok's sister), 

Ubbe, a great Danish lord, p. 53 ; 

entertains Havelok, p. 54 ; takes 
him to his castle, p. 56; does 
homage to Havelok, p. 75 ; dubs 
him knight, p. 77; his combat 
with Godrich, p. 89; is sorely 
wounded, p. 90. 

Willam (Wendut) (one of 
Grim's sons), 1690, 1881, 1892, 
2348, 2632,; — MS. Wiliam Wen- 
duth, 1398. 

Winehestre, 158, 318. 

Yerk (York), 1178, see Note. 
Ynde, India, 1085.